Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Alkaloid Extracts of Four Papaver Species

  • Ahmad Ismaili Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • Seyyed Mohsen Sohrabi Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • Mojgan Azadpour Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • Rouhollah Heydari Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • Marzieh Rashidipour Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
Keywords: Papaveraceae, medicinal plants, antimicrobial compounds, MIC, MBC


Background and Aim: The use of bioactive compounds of medicinal plants in prevention, control and treatment of human diseases has a long history. Most of plant bioactive compounds have highly complex chemical structures, and their chemical syntheses are often uneconomical. Moreover, their production is still dependent on plants. Plants of Papaveraceae family contain a variety of bioactive compounds that have many uses in traditional and modern medicine. In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of alkaloid extracts of four plant species of Papaveraceae family against some human pathogens.Materials and Methods: Crude alkaloid compounds of Papaver macrostomum, Roemeria refracta, Papaver somniferum and Glaucium grandiflorum plants were extracted using cain method.  The antimicrobial activity of plant alkaloid extracts against Pseudomonas aeroginosa PTCC 1310, Listeria monocytogenes PTCC 1297, Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1189, Klebsiella pneumoniae PTCC 1290 and Candida albicans PTCC 5027 pathogens were assessed using agar diffusion method.Results: The results of this study indicated that the alkaloid extracts of tested plants were effective against fungal and bacterial pathogens. All plant alkaloid extracts exhibited more inhibitory effect against fungal pathogen than the bacterial pathogens. Comparison of MIC and MBC values for bacterial pathogens revealed that all plant alkaloid extracts showed more inhibitory effects against the gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The results also showed that the alkaloid extracts of R. refracta have stronger inhibitory effect against fungal and bacterial pathogens compared with other plants.Conclusion: The antimicrobial compounds present in the plant species of Papaveraceae family are suitable candidates to produce new antibiotics. The results of this study demonstrated that antimicrobial compound in R. refracta plant could be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by C. albicans and S. aureus pathogens.


Moniri R, Mosayebi Z, Movahedian A. Increasing trend of antimicrobial drug-resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing septicemia. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2006;35(1):58-62.

Hughes D, Andersson DI. Evolutionary trajectories to antibiotic resistance. Annual Review of Microbiology. 2017;71(1):1-12.

Stamp N. Out of the quagmire of plant defense hypotheses. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 2003;78(1):23-55.

Omidbaigi R. Production and processing of medicinal plants: Astan Godesa Razavei Publication; 2005.

Chomel M, Guittonny‐Larchevêque M, Fernandez C, Gallet C, DesRochers A, Paré D, et al. Plant secondary metabolites: a key driver of litter decomposition and soil nutrient cycling. Journal of Ecology. 2016;104(6):1527-41.

Hartmann T. From waste products to ecochemicals: fifty years research of plant secondary metabolism. Phytochemistry. 2007;68(22):2831-46.

Cushnie TT, Cushnie B, Lamb AJ. Alkaloids: an overview of their antibacterial, antibiotic-enhancing and antivirulence activities. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2014;44(5):377-86.

Hopkins WG. Physiologie végétale: De Boeck Supérieur; 2003.

Dastmalchi M, Park MR, Morris JS, Facchini P. Family portraits: the enzymes behind benzylisoquinoline alkaloid diversity. Phytochemistry Reviews. 2017:1-29.

Phillipson JD, Roberts MF, Zenk M. The chemistry and biology of isoquinoline alkaloids: Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.

Ünsal Ç, Özbek B, Sarıyar G, Mat A. Antimicrobial activity of four annual Papaver species growing in Turkey. Pharmaceutical biology. 2009;47(1):4-6.

Kostic DA, Mitic SS, Mitic MN, Velickovic JM. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Papaver rhoeas L. extracts from Southeast Serbia. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010;4(17):1727-32.

Zuo GY, Meng FY, Hao XY, Zhang YL, Wang GC, Xu GL. Antibacterial alkaloids from Chelidonium majus Linn (Papaveraceae) against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2009;11(4):90-4.

Bhattacharjee I, Chatterjee SK, Chandra G. Isolation and identification of antibacterial components in seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L.(Papaveraceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010;3(7):547-51.

Maldoni B. Alkaloids: isolation and purification. J Chem Educ. 1991;68(8):700.

Bauer A, Kirby W, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American journal of clinical pathology. 1966;45(4):493.

Wiegand I, Hilpert K, Hancock RE. Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances. Nature protocols. 2008;3(2):163-75.

Tripathi K. Essentials of medical pharmacology: JP Medical Ltd; 2013.

Kačániová M, Nóźková J, Fatrcová-Šramková K, Kropková Z, Kubincová J. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Actiyity and Heavy Metals Content in Pollen of Papaver somniferum L. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering A. 2010;17(1):97-106.

Çoban EP, Biyik H, Törün B, Yaman F. Evaluation the Antimicrobial Effects of Pistacia terebinthus L. and Papaver rhoeas l. Extracts Against Some Pathogen Microorganisms. Indian J Pharm Education Research. 2017;51(3):377-80.

Lv F, Liang H, Yuan Q, Li C. In vitro antimicrobial effects and mechanism of action of selected plant essential oil combinations against four food-related microorganisms. Food Research International. 2011;44(9):3057-64.

Çoban İ, Toplan GG, Özbek B, Gürer ÇU, Sarıyar G. Variation of alkaloid contents and antimicrobial activities of Papaver rhoeas L. growing in Turkey and northern Cyprus. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2017;55(1):1894-8.

Mehrara M, Halakoo M, Hakemi-Vala M, Hashemi SJ, Asgarpanah J. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the endemic species Glaucium vitellinum Boiss. and Buhse. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 2015;5(1):56.

Ünsal Ç, Sarıyar G, Akarsu BG, Çevikbaş A. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Studies on Turkish Samples of Papaver macrostomum. Pharmaceutical biology. 2007;45(8):626-30.

Rahman MM, Alam MJ, Sharmin SA, Rahman MM, Rahman A, Alam M. In vitro antibacterial activity of Argemone mexicana L (Papaveraceae). CMU J Nat Sci. 2009;8:77-84.

Morteza-Semnani K, Saeedi M, Mahdavi MR. Antibacterial studies on extracts of three species of Glaucium. from Iran. Pharmaceutical biology. 2005;43(3):234-6.

Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Parker J. Brock biology of microorganisms: Prentice hall Upper Saddle River, NJ; 1997.

Original Article