Cadmium Concentration in Cigarette Brands, Tobacco Leaves, and Smokers' Blood Samples
AbstractBackground and Aim: The present study sought to determine cadmium (Cd) concentration in three different types of tobacco leaves, cigarette smokers' blood, and certain cigarette brands that are both imported from abroad and produced in Iran.Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of male volunteers of 40-65 years old whose blood samples were collected and categorized into four distinct groups of cigarette smokers (N=40) based on the number of cigarettes every participant would smoke per day. Serum concentrations of heavy metal were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA). Moreover, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy technique was used to determine all of the samples examined in this research.Results: Mean concentrations of Cd in imported cigarettes brands and cigarettes produced in Iran were 1.89±o.12 µg/g (dry weight) and 1.44±0.8 µg/g (dry weight) respectively. Average levels of Cd in smokers’ blood with 10, 20, 30, and 40 cigarettes per day were 1.31±0.14, 2.42±0.17, 3.18±0.21, and 4.38±0.18 µg per liter respectively. The mean concentrations of Cd in Hakan, Kasham and Borazjan tobacco were 2.18 ± 0.12, 2.43±0.9, and 2.89±017µ/g (dry weight) respectively.Conclusion: The data presented in this study did not indicate any significant difference between the cigarette brands produced in Iran, while Rothman cigarette brand had the highest Cd concentrations among the imported cigarettes. The blood Cd concentration in smokers that depends on the number of cigarette smoked per day was about four times higher than non-smokers.
MEMON AR, AKTOPRAKLIGİL D, ÖZDEMİR A, VERTII A. Heavy metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in plants. Turkish Journal of Botany. 2001;25(3):111-21.
Moorthy MS, Cho H-J, Yu E-J, Jung Y-S, Ha C-S. A modified mesoporous silica optical nanosensor for selective monitoring of multiple analytes in water. Chemical Communications. 2013;49(78):8758-60.
Asgary S, Movahedian A, Keshvari M, Taleghani M, Sahebkar A, Sarrafzadegan N. Serum levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in relation to coronary artery disease in the elderly: A cross-sectional study. Chemosphere. 2017;180:540-4.
Liu X, Song Q, Tang Y, Li W, Xu J, Wu J, et al. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: a multi-medium analysis. Science of the Total Environment. 2013;463:530-40.
Al Bakheet SA, Attafi IM, Maayah ZH, Abd-Allah AR, Asiri YA, Korashy HM. Effect of long-term human exposure to environmental heavy metals on the expression of detoxification and DNA repair genes. Environmental pollution. 2013;181:226-32.
Cabrera C, Ortega E, Lorenzo M-L. Cadmium contamination of vegetable crops, farmlands, and irrigation waters. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology: Springer; 1998. p. 55-81.
Nnorom I, Osibanjo O, Oji-Nnorom C. Cadmium determination in cigarettes available in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(10).
Engida AM, Chandravanshi BS. Assessment of heavy metals in tobacco of cigarettes commonly sold in Ethiopia. Chemistry International. 2017;3(3):212-8.
Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Salmela S, Leppänen A, Pyysalo H. Cigarettes as a source of some trace and heavy metals and pesticides in man. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal. 1986;41(1):49-55.
de Sousa Viana GF, Garcia KS, Menezes-Filho JA. Assessment of carcinogenic heavy metal levels in Brazilian cigarettes. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2011;181(1-4):255-65.
Menden EE, Elia VJ, Michael LW, Petering HG. Distribution of cadmium and nickel of tobacco during cigarette smoking. Environmental Science & Technology. 1972;6(9):830-2.
Mannino D, Holguin F, Greves H, Savage-Brown A, Stock A, Jones R. Urinary cadmium levels predict lower lung function in current and former smokers: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Thorax. 2004;59(3):194-8.
George F. Antonious ETT, and Tejinder S. Kochhar. Testing Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb, and Ni in Plants Grown in Soil Amended with Municipal Sewage Sludge at Three Kentucky Locations. JSM Environmental Science & Ecology. 2017;5(1):1039-49.
Besaratinia A, Pfeifer GP. Second-hand smoke and human lung cancer. The lancet oncology. 2008;9(7):657-66.
Lugon-Moulin N, Martin F, Krauss MR, Ramey PB, Rossi L. Cadmium concentration in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) from different countries and its relationship with other elements. Chemosphere. 2006;63(7):1074-86.
Williams M, Villarreal A, Bozhilov K, Lin S, Talbot P. Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol. PloS one. 2013;8(3):e57987.
Silver MK, Lozoff B, Meeker JD. Blood cadmium is elevated in iron deficient US children: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health. 2013;12(1):117.
Ivanenko NB, Solovyev ND, Ivanenko AA, Ganeev AA. Application of Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with high-frequency modulation polarization for the direct determination of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, and thallium in human blood. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2012;63(3):299-308.
Van Loon JA. Analytical atomic absorption spectroscopy: selected methods: Elsevier; 2012.
Van Loon JC, Barefoot R. Analytical methods for geochemical exploration: Elsevier; 2013.
Caruso RV, O'Connor RJ, Stephens WE, Cummings KM, Fong GT. Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from US smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2013;11(1):202-17.
Sebiawu GE, Mensah NJ, Ayiah-Mensah F. Analysis of Heavy Metals Content of Tobacco and Cigarettes sold in Wa Municipality of Upper West Region, Ghana. Analysis. 2014;25.
Ashraf MW. Levels of heavy metals in popular cigarette brands and exposure to these metals via smoking. The Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012.
Stephens W, Calder A, editors. Mineralogical controls on the partitioning of trace elements between smoke and ash during the combustion of tobacco. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly; 2003.
Kalcher K, Kern W, Pietsch R. Cadmium and lead in the smoke of a filter cigarette. Science of the Total Environment. 1993;128(1):21-35.
Massadeh AM, Alali FQ, Jaradat QM. Determination of cadmium and lead in different cigarette brands in Jordan. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2005;104(1-3):163-70.
Verma S, Yadav S, Singh I. Trace metal concentration in different Indian tobacco products and related health implications. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010;48(8):2291-7.
Stephens WE, Calder A, Newton J. Source and health implications of high toxic metal concentrations in illicit tobacco products. Environmental science & technology. 2005;39(2):479-88.
Organization WH. Environmental Health Criterial 134-Cadmium International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) Monograph. Geneva: WHO; 1992.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY). However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.