Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Properties of the Ethanolic Extract of the Leaves of Sarcocephalous Latifolius

Adeola Michael Oloyede *, Sinirat Omowunmi Larinde

Abstract


Background and Aim: Sarcocephalus latifolius serves multiple purposes in the treatment of different ailments in Nigeria. In this study, antiplasmodial and cytological activities of the ethanolic extract of leaves of S. latifolius were assessed using albino mice and Allium cepa models.

Materials and Methods: For the antiplasmodial test, a total of 25 mice were divided into five groups of five mice. The groups were administered plant extract (25, 50 and 100mg/kg), chloroquine (10mg/kg) and distilled water respectively. This test involved two phases. In the suppressive phase, the extract was orally administered for four days after inoculation, and blood smear was prepared on the fifth day.  In the curative phase, the mice were inoculated with parasites three days before the administration of the extract to ensure the full development of parasites, and the extract was administered for five days. Blood smears were prepared along the periods of administration and five days after the administration. In cytotoxic study, onion bulbs were exposed to 25, 50 and 100 mg/ ml concentrations of the extract for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Subsequently, the macroscopic and microscopic investigations were evaluated.

Results: All doses exhibited significant antiplasmodial activity dose-dependently. Root length significantly decreased in all concentrations compared to control. After 72 hours, the percentage root length and root inhibition at all concentrations were decreased. S. latifolius, therefore, demonstrated significant antiplasmodial activities. Availability of metabolites, such as alkaloids and flavonoids, may elicit endoperoxidation thereby causing death of parasites.

Conclusion: This finding supports the traditional use of S. latifolius against malaria. Cytoarchitecture revealed aberrations like sticky telophase, vagrant metaphase and telophase which may indicate the signs of toxicity that could cause cell death.


Keywords


Antimalarial, S. latifolius, Chromosomal Aberrations, Toxicity

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22087/herb%20med%20j.v3i3.742

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