Use of Satureja khuzestanica Essential Oil (SKEO) in the Treatment of Diarrhea: Modes of Action on Intestinal Function in Animal Model

Raheleh Assaei, Naser Pajouhi *


Background and Aim: Satureja khuzestanica is an annual herb that is used in Iranian traditional medicine to treat intestinal disorders such as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (SKEO) was tested to elucidate the mechanism(s) of its gastrointestinal activity in two animal models.

Materials and Methods: The in vitro test of the effect of SKEO on the contractions induced by different spasmogens in isolated rat ileum preparations was carried out. The impacts of SKEO on intestinal transit, diarrhea, and intestinal secretion in mice were investigated with the charcoal meal, castor oil-induced diarrhea, and entropooling assays.

Results: Pretreatment with SKEO at doses of (5-20 µg/mL) had a significant and concentration-dependent relaxant effect on contractions induced by acetylcholine, nicotine, histamine and serotonin in isolated rat ileum preparations. Moreover, it had an inhibitory effect on both K+- and Ca2+-induced contractions in the same tissue. At doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, SKEO decreased intestinal transit, fecal weight and intestinal secretion.

Conclusion: SKEO showed anti-diarrheal, anti-motility and anti-secretory activities that might prove beneficial in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.



Anti-spasmodic, Diarrhea, Satureja khuzestanica, Intestinal transit, Intestinal secretion, Rats

Full Text:



Gilani AH, Rehman NU, Mehmood MH, Alkharfy KM. Species differences in the antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Lepidium sativum and insight into underlying mechanisms. Phytother Res. 2013;27(7):1086-94.

Farsam H AM, Radpour MR, Salehinia AN, Shafiee A. Composition of the essential oils of wild and cultivated Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad from Iran. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 2004;19(4):3.

Zibaei M, Sarlak A, Delfan B, Ezatpour B, Azargoon A. Scolicidal effects of Olea europaea and Satureja khuzestanica extracts on protoscolices of hydatid cysts. The Korean journal of parasitology. 2012;50(1):53-6.

Rezvanfar M, Sadrkhanlou R, Ahmadi A, Shojaei-Sadee H, Rezvanfar M, Mohammadirad A, et al. Protection of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in reproductive tract histology, sperm characteristics, and DNA damage by an herbal source; evidence for role of free-radical toxic stress. Human & experimental toxicology. 2008;27(12):901-10.

Vosough-Ghanbari S, Rahimi R, Kharabaf S, Zeinali S, Mohammadirad A, Amini S, et al. Effects of Satureja khuzestanica on Serum Glucose, Lipids and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010;7(4):465-70.

Shahsavari R, Ehsani-Zonouz A, Houshmand M, Salehnia A, Ahangari G, Firoozrai M. Plasma glucose lowering effect of the wild Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad essential oil in diabetic rats: role of decreased gluconeogenesis. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009;12(2):140-5.

Ghazanfari G, Minaie B, Yasa N, Nakhai LA, Mohammadirad A, Nikfar S, et al. Biochemical and histopathological evidences for beneficial effects of satureja khuzestanica jamzad essential oil on the mouse model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2006;16(7):365-72.

Rastegarpanah M ON, Vahedi H.Malekzadeh R, Hashemian F, Safarnavadeh T, Abdollahi M. Management of Human Ulcerative Colitis by SaturexTM: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Pharmacol. 2011;7(4):516-21.

Rezvanfar MA, Farshid AA, Sadrkhanlou RA, Ahmadi A, Rezvanfar MA, Salehnia A, et al. Benefit of Satureja khuzestanica in subchronically rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2010;62(3):323-30.

Amanlou M, Dadkhah F, Salehnia A, Farsam H, Dehpour AR. An anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad extract. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8(1):102-6.

Momtaz S AM. An Update on Pharmacology of Satureja Species; From Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antidiabetes and Anti-hyperlipidemic to Reproductive Stimulation. Int J Pharmacol. 2010;6(4):454-61.

Shah AJ, Gilani AH, Abbas K, Rasheed M, Ahmed A, Ahmad VU. Studies on the chemical composition and possible mechanisms underlying the antispasmodic and bronchodilatory activities of the essential oil of Artemisia maritima L. Archives of pharmacal research. 2011;34(8):1227-38.

Brankovic SV, Kitic DV, Radenkovic MM, Veljkovic SM, Golubovic TD. Calcium blocking activity as a mechanism of the spasmolytic effect of the essential oil of Calamintha glandulosa Silic on the isolated rat ileum. General physiology and biophysics. 2009;28 Spec No:174-8.

Rajan S, Suganya H, Thirunalasundari T, Jeeva S. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine. 2012;5(8):630-3.

Hajhashemi V, Sadraei H, Ghannadi AR, Mohseni M. Antispasmodic and anti-diarrhoeal effect of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2000;71(1-2):187-92.

Gordienko DV, Harhun MI, Kustov MV, Pucovsky V, Bolton TB. Sub-plasmalemmal [Ca2+]i upstroke in myocytes of the guinea-pig small intestine evoked by muscarinic stimulation: IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release induced by voltage-gated Ca2+ entry. Cell Calcium. 2008;43(2):122-41.

Sharma P VG, Bhandari A, Singh S, Bhadoriya U, Ghule S. A pharmacological evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of leaves extract of Murraya koenigii in experimentally induced diarrhoea in rats. APJTD. 2012, Pages 230-233;2


Guan X, Stoll B, Lu X, Tappenden KA, Holst JJ, Hartmann B, et al. GLP-2-mediated up-regulation of intestinal blood flow and glucose uptake is nitric oxide-dependent in TPN-fed piglets 1. Gastroenterology. 2003;125(1):136-47.

Capasso F, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Gaginella TS. Dissociation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea and intestinal mucosal injury in rat: effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. British journal of pharmacology. 1994;113(4):1127-30.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY).  However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.


Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

ISSN: 2538-2144