Evaluation of Effectiveness of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma longa, discretely and in Combination with Chloroquine against Chloroquine-Sensitive Strain of Plasmodium berghei

Peyman Heydarian, Mehdi Nateghpour *, Nahideh Mazhari, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi, Leila Farivar, Effat Souri, Amirreza Javadi Mamaghani, Bahman Rahimi Esboei

Abstract


Background and Aim: Malaria is a parasitic disease and one of the most important public health problem. Chemical medications such as chloroquine, primaquine, pyrimethamine, mefloquine, artemisinin and fansidar are commonly used to treat malaria but most of the antimalarials have encountered with problem of drug resistance. Therefore, new therapeutic materials are promptly needed. During many years natural medicines, especially medicinal plants have been considered as the pivotal means for treatment of malaria in some endemic areas. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa L, discretely and in combination with chloroquine against chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei.

Materials and Methods: Fifty percent effective dose (ED50s) of C. longa and chloroquine were determined according to peter̛ s method. Then based on the obtained ED50s combination of Curcuma longa and chloroquine with different ratios were examined against the strain.

Results: The results of ED50s for chloroquine and C. longa were 1.4mg/kg and 1250mg/kg, respectively. Combination of C. longa ethanolic extract with chloroquine in ratio of 80/20 showed the highest activity with 71.75% to inhibit the growth of P. berghei indicating synergistic interaction in the combination treatment.

Conclusion: It appears that turmeric (C. longa) extract is an effective anti-malarial substance especially in combination with chloroquine.


Keywords


Turmeric extract, Plasmodium berghei, Interaction, Chloroquine

Full Text:

PDF

References


Khodadadi M, Nateghpour M, Souri E, Farivar L, Motevalli-Haghi A, Rahimi-Froushani A, et al. Evaluation of effectiveness of ethanolic extract of Artemisia aucheri, individually and in combination with chloroquine, on chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei in sourian mice. Iran J Public Health. 2013; 42(8):883.

World Health Organization. Global report on antimalarial efficacy and drug resistance: 2000-2010. 2010; Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241500470/en/.

Bousema T, Drakeley C. Epidemiology and infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax gametocytes in relation to malaria control and elimination. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24(2):377-410.

David Taylor, The Pharmaceutical Industry and the Future of Drug Development, in Pharmaceuticals in the Environment.(2015) 1-33. DOI: 10.1039/9781782622345-00001. eISBN:978-1-78262-234-5.

World Health Organization. WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014-2023. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/92455 /9789241506090_eng.

Wink M. Modes of action of herbal medicines and plant secondary metabolites. Medicines (Basel). 2015;2(3):251-86.

Alrubaie AL. Effects of alcoholic extract of Curcuma longa on Ascaridia infestation affecting chicken. Indian J Exp Biol. 2015;53(7):452-6.

Dhama K, Tiwari R, Chakraborty S, Saminathan M, Kumar A, Karthik K, et al. Evidence based antibacterial potentials of medicinal plants and herbs countering bacterial pathogens especially in the era of emerging drug resistance: An integrated update. Int J Pharmacol. 2014;10:1-43.

Nateghpour M, Farivar L, Souri E, Hajjaran H, Mohebali M, Motevalli Haghi A. The effect of Otostegia persica in combination with chloroquine on chloroquine _sensitive and chloroquine_resistant strains of Plasmodium berghei using in vivo fixed ratios method. Iran J Pharm Res. 2012;11(2):583-8.

Grimberg BT, Mehlotra RK. Expanding the Antimalarial Drug Arsenal—Now, But How? Pharmaceuticals. 2011;4(5):681-712.

Odugbemi TO, Akinsulire OR, Aibinu IE, Fabeku PO. Medicinal plants useful for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria. "Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007;4(2):191-8.

World Health Organization. WHO traditional medicine strategy 2002-2005. 2002;1-70.

Tizabi Y, Hurley LL, Qualls Z, Akinfiresoye L. Relevance of the anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin in neurodegenerative diseases and depression. Molecules. 2014;19(12):20864-79.

Rasmussen HB, Christensen SB, Kvist LP, Karazmi A. A simple and efficient separation of the curcumins, the antiprotozoal constituents of Curcuma longa. Planta Med. 2000;66(04):396-8.

Reddy RC, Vatsala PG, Keshamouni VG, Padmanaban G, Rangarajan PN. Curcumin for malaria therapy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;326(2):472-4.

Nourizadeh E. Anti-bacterial effects of ginger and clove on Helicobacter Pylori. Res J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 2002;1(4):19-26.

Nourizadeh E, Ghasemi K, Latifi S. Anti-bacterial effects of Licorice on Helicobacter Pylori. The 3th National congress of Biotechnology. 2003; p:9-11.

Nandakumar DN, Nagaraj VA, Vathsala PG, Rangarajan P, Padmanaban G. Curcumin-artemisinin combination therapy for malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(5):1859-60.

Wongsansee K. The Effect of Curcuma longa, Aegle marmelos and Andrographis paniculata in Plasmodium YoelII 17X (Lethal) Strain-infected ICR Mice: Mahidol Univ; 2009.

Martinelli A, Rodrigues LA, Cravo P. Plasmodium chabaudi: efficacy of artemisinin+ curcumin combination treatment on a clone selected for artemisinin resistance in mice. Exp Parasitol. 2008;119(2):304-7.

Mishra K, Dash AP, Swain BK, Dey N. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin. Malar J. 2009;8(1):26.

Kettawan A, Wongsansri K, Chompoopong S, Rungruang T. Antioxidant and Antiplasmodial Activities of Curcuma longa and Aegle marmelos on Malaria Infeced Mice (In Vitro and In Vivo). Siriraj Medical Journal. 2012;64(1):78-81.

Rasoanaivo P, Wright CW, Willcox ML, Gilbert B. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions. Malar J. 2011;10(1):S4.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22087/herb%20med%20j.v3i4.744

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

                               

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY).  However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.


 

Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

ISSN: 2538-2144