Comparative Studies of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Three Ethnomedical Plants (Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina and Cymbopogon citratus)

Obhioze Augustine Akpoka *, Maureen U. Okwu, Odaro Stanley Imade, Spencer C. O. Nwangwu, Erifeta Georgina Omonegho, Christabel Uti


Background and Aim: Ethnomedicinal plants are in use as various therapies by indigenous population all over the world.  This study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial susceptibility of the leaves of Cymbopogon citrates, Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

Materials and Methods: The active agents in the leaves were extracted with methanol using the Soxhlet extraction technique. The extracts were then tested for antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method. MIC was determined by the tube dilution technique.

Results:  The results revealed that methanolic extract of C. citrates had the best mean zones of inhibition against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The mean zones of inhibition of C. citrates against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were 11.5 ± 1.5 mm (31.25 mg/ml), 11.5 ± 0.5 mm (125 mg/ml), 12.0 ± 1.0 (125 mg/ml) and 12.0 ± 1.0 (500 mg/ml) respectively. The activity of the extracts, in relation to the activity of gentamycin (positive control) and DMSO (negative control) were also determined. Methanolic extract of C. citrates had the highest activity (38 %) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 31.25 mg/ml and S. aureus (54%) at 250 mg/ml and (52%) against MRSA at 500 mg/ml. V. amygdalin showed the highest activity (35%) against E. coli at 125 mg/ml. the therapeutic efficacy was also determined using the breakpoint of 10 µg gentamycin (the positive control).

Conclusion: Thus, findings in this study suggest that C. citrates, V. amygdalina and O. gratissimum could be possibly explored by pharmaceutical companies as raw materials for the synthesis of new antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections especially as a cocktail.


Ethnomedical Plants, Therapeutic Efficacy, Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina and Cymbopogon citratus

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