A Preliminary Investigation of the Acute Toxicity of the Ethanolic Extract of Hoslundia opposita in Mus musculus (Swiss Mice)
AbstractBackground and Aim: Hoslundia opposita has been used traditionally in the management of many health maladies in Southwestern Nigeria. This study investigated the toxicity of the plant for 14 days.Materials and Methods: 20 healthy mice weighing between 13-25 grams were grouped in four cages of 5 mice. They were orally administered extracts of 50, 100, and 200mg kg,-1 and the control group received distilled water. At the expiration of exposure, animals were weighed and sacrificed. Subsequently, blood was obtained for hematology. Internal organs were harvested, weighed and then the liver was homogenized for biochemical analysis.Results: No noticeable difference between the body and organ weights of the treatment groups and the control group was observed. There was a significant dose-dependent decrease in leucocyte. Hemoglobin and neutrophil increased statistically at 200mg kg-1, and 100mg kg-1 respectively. Biochemical analytes showed dose-dependent increases in AST, ALT, ALB, Urea, T.Chol, creatinine and DBil against the control, though a significant increase was observed in mice at 200mg kg-1 in AST. T.bil increased significantly at 200mg kg-1. Insignificant variations in the body and relative organ weight may simply no acute injury and physiologic disturbances attributable to the extract. Insignificant changes in PCV, eosinophils and RBC suggest that the extract does not affect erythropoiesis, osmotic fragility or RBC morphology. The significant leucocyte reduction might imply toxicity on immunity, though clinically irrelevant, for monocytes were insignificant. Moreover, eosinophils at a permissible range might imply the absence of allergy to the extract. Elevated AST and ALT in high doses suggest potential toxicity, but within a permissible range, negating toxicity. Similar values of ALB and T.Prot between the treatment and the control groups suggest that the extract did not alter either the hepatocellular or the secretory mechanism.Conclusion: H. opposita is devoid of acute toxicosis at the examined doses.
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