Effectiveness of household Plants in Phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activity, and antioxidants with different solvents

Keywords: Phytochemicals, Natural products, Flavonoid, Anthocyanins, Vitamin C


The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts obtained from Acalypha indica, Azadirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis and Murraya koneigii were studied. In the present work, plant extracts were prepared using ethanol, methanol, and water as solvents. Crude and soxhlet method were used for extraction process. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done to reveal the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, saponins, steroids, and anthocyanins. Quantitative analysis were done for the estimation of  phenolic content and vitamin C. Soxhlet methanolic leaf extracts of Acalypha indica (4.80mg/ml) showed  high level of phenolic content and Vitamin C content was found to be high in methanolic crude and soxhlet extract of Murraya koenigii (3.7mg/ml and 2.4mg/ml). Antimicrobial assay was carried out by agar disk diffusion method against seven bacterial strains. Gram positive organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative organisms like Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter faecalis and Escherichia coli were used. The antimicrobial activities of each extract were assessed by measuring the diameter zone of inhibition. The plant extracts tested were highly effective against Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter fecalis. Compared to aqueous extracts, methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed more antimicrobial activity. Methanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis showed higher zone of inhibition compare to other extracts.

Author Biography

K V Radha, Anna University
Professor in The Department of Chemical Engineering



Savithramma N, Rao Linga M, Suhrulatha D.Screening of Medicinal Plants for Secondary Metabolites, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research.2011; 8 (3): 579-584.

Tadesse Getahun, Reneela P, Dekebo Aman. Isolation and characterization of natural products from Helinus mystachnus (Rhamnaceae). Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2012;4(3): 1756-1762.

Radha K.V, Arun T. and Srinivas Pidigu, Antibacterial activity and phytochemical screeing of Clitoria Ternatea linn. Against proteus mirablis from urinary tract infected patients, World Jl of pharma. Res.2014;3(3): 2014, 4351-4366.

Kalimuthu K, Prabakaran R, Brindha C.Antibacterial activity of different solvent extracts of ceropegia pusillain in vitro tuber (wight and arn.) an endemic, medicinal plant. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2013; 2(5): 2947-2955.

Khan Rosina, Zakir Mohammad, Afaq Sadul H, Latif Abdul, Khan Asad U. Activity of solvent extracts of Prosopis spicigera, Zingiber officinale and Trachyspermum ammi against multidrug resistant bacterial and fungal strains. J Infect Dev Ctries.2010; 4(5): 292-300.

Baskaran C, Velu S. Phytochemical analysis and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resoures. 2012; 2 (6): 711-716.

Vinoth B, Manivasagaperumal R, Rajaravindran M. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Azadirachta indica a juss. International Journal of Research in Plant Science.2012;2(3): 50-55.

Susmitha S, Vidyamol K.K, Ranganayaki P, Vijayaragavan R. Phytochemical Extraction and Antimicrobial Properties of Azadirachta indica (Neem). Global Journal of Pharmacology. 2013;7 (3): 316-320.

Biswas Brototi, Kaplay RD. Azadirachta Indica (neem): it’s economic utility and chances for commercial planned plantation in nanded district. Int J Pharma. 2011;1(2):100-104.

Hashmat Imam, Azad Hussain, Ahmed Ajij. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) - A Nature's Drugstore: An overview. I. Res. J. Biological Sci. 2012;1(6): 76-79.

Shinde G.N, Biswas Brototi. An environ-economic backbone in the economic resurgence of barren & semi-arid regions: Azadirachta Indica. J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour2011; 1(2): 8-13.

Umberto Quattrocchi, F.L.S. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.2012

Sharon M. Herr, Edzard Ernst, Veronica S. L. Young, Herb-drug Interaction Handbook 2nd Ed, Church street books.2010

Khare C.P. Indian medicinal Plants. Springer-Verlag Berlin. 2007.

Thenmozhi S, Rajan S. Screening of Antibacterial and Phytochemical activity of Acalypha indica Linn against isolated respiratory pathogens, Research in Plant Biology, 2012;2(1): 1-6.

Rameshkumar S, Ramakritinan CM.Floristic survey of traditional herbal medicinal plants for treatments of various diseases from coastal diversity in Pudhukkottai District, Tamilnadu, India, Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 2013;1(3): 225-232.

Cowan Marjorie Murphy. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999;12(4): 564–582.

Bijekar S, Gayathri M.C.Ethanomedicinal properties of Euphorbiaceae family-A comprehensive review. Intl. Jorunal of Phytomedicine. 2014; 6: 144-156.

Bourdy, G and A. Walter, Maternity and medicinal plants in Vanuatu I. The cycle of reproduction. J. Ethnopharmacol 1992;37: 179-196.

Dahiya Praveen, Purkayastha Sharmishtha.Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants against Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria from Clinical Isolates. Indian J Pharm Scip. 2012;74(5): 443–450.

Choudhury Sushmita, Sharan Latika, Sinha M.P. Phytochemical and antimicrobial standardization of the methanolic leaf extracts of Murraya koenigii Linn. Archives des sciences. 2013; 66(3): 67-80.

Vats Manisha, Singh Harneet, Sardana Satish Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. (Rutaceae). Braz.Jl. of Microb.2011; 42: 1569-1573.

Kong, Y. C, Ng K. H, But, P. P, Li Q, Yu S. X, Zhang H. T, Cheng, K. F, Seojarto D. D, Kan W. S, Waterman, P. G. Sources of the anti-implantation alkaloid yuehchukene in the genus Murraya, J. Ethnopharmacol. 1986;15: 195.

Russel S. R, Muraleedharan G. N, Gale M. S, David L. D.W, John L. N. Biologically Active Carbazole Alkaloids from Murraya koenigii. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999; 47:444-447.

Vandana J, Munira M, Kirti L. Murraya Koenigii: An Updated Review. Intl. Jl. of Ayur. and Herb. Med.2012; 2(4): 607:627

Gull Iram, Sohail Maria, Aslam M.S, Athar M. A. Phytochemical, toxicological and antimicrobial evaluation of Lawsonia inermis extracts against clinical isolates of pathogenic bacteria. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2013;12(36): 1-6.

Lemordant D, Foresteier.Traditional medicinal uses and Pharmacological properties of Lawsonia inermis L. Lythraceae. J. Agric. Bot., Appl. 1983;30(1): 69-89.

Singh, V K, Pandey D K. Fungitoxic studies on bark extract of Lawsonia inermis against gram-positive bacteria. Hindustani Antibiot Bull. 1989;31(1): 32-35.

Mouhajir, F., J.B. Hudson, G.H.N. Rejdali, G.H.N. In Towers.Multiple Antiviral Activities of Endemic Medicinal Plants Used by Berber Peoples of Morocco. Pharmaceut Biol. 2001;39(5): 364-74.

Nema Amit Kumar, Varsha kashaw. Physico-Chemical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Leptadenia Reticulata Stems, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. 2011; 2 (3): 1000-1005.

Edeoga H.O, Okwu D. E, Mbaebie B.O. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal Plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005; 4 (7): 685-688.

Kumar GS, Jayaveera KN, Ashok Kumar CK, Sanjay Umachigi P, Swamy Vrushabendra BM, Kumar Kishore DV. Antimicrobial effects of Indian medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2007;6 (2): 717-723.

Kumar A, Ilavarasan R, Jayachandran T, Decaraman M, Aravindhan P, Padmanabhan N, Krishnan M.R.V. Phytochemicals Investigation on a Tropical Plant Syzygium cumini from Kattuppalayam, Erode District, Tamil Nadu, South India. Pak. J. Nutri.2009; 8(1): 83-85.

Sarma Sai Koteswar. D, Babu Venkata Suresh A. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies of Ocimum americanum. J. Chem. Pharm. Res.2011;3(3):337-347.

Devmurari V P. Phytochemical screening study and antibacterial evaluation of Symplocos racemosa Roxb, Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 2010; 2 (1): 354-359.

Godghate Ashvin, Sawant Rajaram, Sutar Ashok.Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of roots of Carrisa carandus Linn. Rasayan J. Chem.2012;5 (4): 456-459.

Sahu Rajeshwari, Saxena Jyoti. Screening of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Conventional and Non-Conventional Species of Curcuma. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2013;2 (1): 176-179.

Borah Archana, Yadav Raj Narayan Singh, Unni Bala Gopalan. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Leucas aspera. International journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2011;9(2): 46-49.

Dewi Kusrini1, Enny Fachriyah, Gian Restu Prinanda. Isolation of phenolic acid in Acalypha indica l plants and test total phenol also antioxidant test using DPPH method., IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 509 012033

Adebayo Oseni Lateef, Osman Kadiri. A comparative evaluation of in vitro growth inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts of some medicinal plants in Northern Ghana against selected human. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2012; 2(2):199-206.

Original Article