Complementary Effects of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) and Rosa damascene Extract (Rose oil) on SpO2 in Patients with COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
AbstractBackground and Aim: In light of the high prevalence of COVID-19 and the need for ventilation support, various methods have been recommended to decrease the need for mechanical ventilation support. In the present study, we made an attempt to compare the effects of rose oil and peppermint extract nebulizer on SpO2 (peripheral oxygen saturation) in COVID-19’s patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 patients with COVID-19 under a standard treatment protocol at the Northeast Corona Center of Tehran. The patients were divided into three groups, i.e. peppermint (n:20), rose oil (n:20) and the control (n:20). The peppermint group received peppermint oil nebulizer twice a day (12 drops in 30cc sterile water for each time), the rose oil group received rose oil nebulizer twice a day (12 drops in 30cc sterile water for each time) and the control group received sterile water with nebulizer (30cc sterile water). SpO2 without extra O2 support was recorded before the start of the nebulizing every day up to 3 days. Results: The results revealed that the mean SpO2 significantly increases over time in all the three groups (P-value<0.001). The mean SpO2 was 84.97 before the treatment, but it was increased to 86.83 , 88.32 , and 89.93 at the first, second and third days of the treatment respectively. The daily increase was statistically significant (P-value<0.001). The results showed that mean SpO2 of the peppermint group was significantly more than the control group at the third day of the treatment. The difference in saturation was 3.25% and the p-value was 0.004. Hence, the need for mechanical ventilation reduced and the patients’ satisfaction increased. Conclusion: The patients experiencing decreases in SpO2 who were treated with peppermint extract showed better results than those treated with placebo at the third day.
Štefanidesová K, Špitalská E, Csicsay F, Friedländerová V, Šáner A, Škultéty Ľ. Evaluation of the possible use of genus Mentha derived essential oils in the prevention of SENLAT syndrome caused by Rickettsia slovaca. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2019;232:55-61.
de Jong M, Lucas C, Bredero H, van Adrichem L, Tibboel D, van Dijk M. Does postoperative ‘M’technique® massage with or without mandarin oil reduce infants’ distress after major craniofacial surgery? Journal of advanced nursing. 2012;68(8):1748-57.
Libster M. Delmar's integrative herb guide for nurses: Delmar/Thomson Learning; 2002.
Schieber A, Mihalev K, Berardini N, Mollov P, Carle R. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 2005;60(5-6):379-84.
Yasa N, Masoumi F, ROUHANI RS, HAJI AA. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extract and essential oil of Rosa damascena from Iran, population of Guilan. 2009.
Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Hajiloo M. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Rosa damascena hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil in animal models. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR. 2010;9(2):163.
Edris AE. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives. 2007;21(4):308-23.
Tayarani-Najaran Z, Talasaz-Firoozi E, Nasiri R, Jalali N, Hassanzadeh M. Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha× piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. ecancermedicalscience. 2013;7.
Asao T, Mochiki E, Suzuki H, Nakamura J-i, Hirayama I, Morinaga N, et al. An easy method for the intraluminal administration of peppermint oil before colonoscopy and its effectiveness in reducing colonic spasm. Gastrointestinal endoscopy. 2001;53(2):172-7.
Chrubasik S. ESCOP Monographs. The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products. Supplement 2009; Thieme Publisher: Stuttgart, New York; ESCOP 2009, ISBN 978‐1‐901964‐08‐0 (ECOP), ISBN 978‐3‐13‐149981‐3 (GTV),(Postage and packing per copy to the UK or Europe). Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives. 2010;24(3):474-.
Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Journal of autoimmunity. 2020:102433.
Zhang J, Zhou L, Yang Y, Peng W, Wang W, Chen X. Therapeutic and triage strategies for 2019 novel coronavirus disease in fever clinics. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2020;8(3):e11-e2.
Sharafkhandy A. Ave-Sina. Law in Medicine. Interpreter. Ministry of Guidance Publication, Teheran. 1990.
Momeni T, Shahrokhi N. Essential oils and their therapeutic actions. Tehran: Tehran. 1991.
Zargari A. Iranian medicinal plants. Tehran: Tehran University Publications. 1997.
Boskabady MH, Shafei MN, Saberi Z, Amini S. Pharmacological effects of Rosa damascena. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences. 2011;14(4):295.
Shafei MN, Rakhshandah H, Boskabady MH. Antitussive effect of Rosa damascena in guinea pigs. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2010:231-4.
Advenier C, Lagente V, Boichot E. The role of tachykinin receptor antagonists in the prevention of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and cough. European Respiratory Journal. 1997;10(8):1892-906.
Shohayeb M, Abdel-Hameed E-SS, Bazaid SA, Maghrabi I. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Rosa damascena MILL. essential oil, different extracts of rose petals. Global Journal of Pharmacology. 2014;8(1):1-7.
Wu Q-f, Wang W, Dai X-y, Wang Z-y, Shen Z-h, Ying H-z, et al. Chemical compositions and anti-influenza activities of essential oils from Mosla dianthera. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2012;139(2):668-71.
Bastaki SM, Adeghate E, Amir N, Ojha S, Oz M. Menthol inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in acetic acid-induced colitis in rat colonic mucosa. American journal of translational research. 2018;10(12):4210.
Rozza AL, de Faria FM, Brito ARS, Pellizzon CH. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PloS one. 2014;9(1).
Li Y, Liu Y, Ma A, Bao Y, Wang M, Sun Z. In vitro antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of Mentha piperita L. Food science and biotechnology. 2017;26(6):1675-83.
Rakhshandah H, Boskabadi M, MOUSAVI Z, GHOLAMI M, Saberi Z. The Differences in the relaxant effects of different fractions of Rosa damascena on guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle. 2010.
Ulusoy S, Boşgelmez-Tınaz G, Seçilmiş-Canbay H. Tocopherol, carotene, phenolic contents and antibacterial properties of rose essential oil, hydrosol and absolute. Current microbiology. 2009;59(5):554.
Liu X, Sun Z-L, Jia A-R, Shi Y-P, Li R-H, Yang P-M. Extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Mentha piperita. International journal of molecular sciences. 2014;15(9):16302-19.
Marofi M, Sirousfard M, Moeini M, Ghanadi A. Evaluation of the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena Mill. on postoperative pain intensity in hospitalized children in selected hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013: A randomized clinical trial. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research. 2015;20(2):247.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY). However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.