In Vitro Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, and Antioxidant Screening of Aqueous Extracts of Blue Ternate (Clitoria ternatea L.) Flower
AbstractBackground and Aim: Extracts of Clitoria ternatea flowers obtained through laboratory standard methods have been constantly reported to have various medicinal activities. However, no reports on such properties are available for this flower’s extracts obtained through common domestic extraction procedures. This study aimed to determine and compare the aqueous extracts (leachate, decoction, tea, and homogenate) of C. ternatea flowers for their antibacterial, anticoagulant, and antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Agar well diffusion and Lee-White test tube method were used for antibacterial and anticoagulant assays, respectively. Moreover, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant assays of the extracts were conducted through the floating disc assay, and DPPH scavenging activity, respectively. Results: The results of the present study revealed that although the extracts exhibited antibacterial activities against Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus, they did not differ significantly at p>0.05. The extracts did not exhibit in vitro anticoagulant activity. Only the homogenate preparations showed catalase activity while all the extracts showed DPPH scavenging activity with the flower decoction as the highest % DPPH RSA harmonic mean of 56.24%, followed by the leachate (45.03%), and the tea (38.79%) and homogenate (37.74%) as the least. Conclusion: C. ternatea flowers extracted through common domestic extraction methods were revealed to have antibacterial, procoagulant, and antioxidant properties. The extracts could also be subjected to phytochemical screening and could be studied for their other bioactive properties.
Mukherjee PK, Kumar V, Kumar NS, Heinrich M. The Ayurvedic medicine Clitoria ternatea—From traditional use to scientific assessment. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2008;120(3):291-301.
stuartxchange.com [Internet]. Philippine Medicinal Plants; [cited 2018 Dec 05]. Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.com/Pukingan.html
Lijon B, Meghla NS, Jahedi E, Rahman A, Hossain I. Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Clitorea ternatea. IJNSS. 2017;4(1):1-10.
Lee DW, Gould KS. Anthocyanins in leaves and other vegetative organs: an introduction. Advances in Botanical Research. 2002;37:1-16.
Al-Snafi AE. Pharmacological importance of Clitoria ternatea – A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2016;6(3):68-83.
The Hindustan Times. Blue tea can help you look young, stay healthy and fight depression [Internet]. The Hindustan Times; 2018 [updated 2018 June 03; cited 2018 December 16]. Available from: https://www.hindustantimes.com/fitness/blue-tea-can-help-you-look-young-stay-healthy-and-fight-the-blues/story-3nsEUN7eweG0BKrNK1fNsN.html
Majestic Herbs. What is Butterfly Pea (Clitoria Ternatea)? [Internet]. Majestic Herbs [cited 2019 January 30]. Available from: https://www.majesticherbs.com/clitoria-ternatea-blue-butterfly-pea-flowers-benefits/
Piston M, Machado I, Brancho CS, Cesio V, Heinzen H, Ribeiro D, et al. Infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves from artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculus) are effective scavengers of physiologically relevant ROS and RNS. Food Res Int. 2014;64:150-6.
Rusaczonek A, Swiderski F, Waszkiewicz-Robak B. Antioxidant properties of tea and herbal infusions – a short report. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2010; 60(1):33-35.
Patil R, Hunshal C, Itnal C. Effect of casuarina litter leachates on crops. Allelopathy Journal. 2002;10(2);141-6.
Biosafety in the laboratory: prudent practices for handling and disposal of infectious materials. National Academies Press. 1990. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK218639/pdf/Bookshelf_NBK218639.pdf. Accessed March 24, 2019.
Clause GW. Understanding Microbes: A Laboratory Textbook for Microbiology. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company; 1989.
Ochei J, Kolhatkar K. Medical Laboratory Science. Theory and Practice. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Tata Mcgraw Hill Publishing Company Limited; 2000. P. 331-49.
Nir G, Shulman Y, Fanberstein L, Lavee S. Changes in the activity of catalase (EC 184.108.40.206) in relation to the dormancy of grapevine (Vitis viniferu L.) buds. Plant Physiology. 1986;81:1140-2.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT. 1995;28:25-30.
Indrianingsih AW, Wulanjati MP, Windarsih A, Bhattacharjya DK, Suzuki T, Katayama T. In vitro studies of antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities of Theobroma cacao, Anonna muricata and Clitoria ternatea. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2021;33:101995.
Manjula P, Mohan CH, Sreekanth D, Keerthi B, Devi BP. Phytochemical analysis of Clitoria ternatea Linn., a valuable medicinal plant. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 2013;92(3&4):173-8.
Dzoyem J, Mcgaw L, Eloff J. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of acetone leaf extracts of nine under-investigated Fabaceae tree species leads to potentially useful extracts in animal health and productivity. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;14:147.
Sutton G. Studies on blood coagulation and the effect of digitalis [Internet]. 1959 Aug [cited 2019 March 05]; 2:[about 7 p]. Available from https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/01.CIR.2.2.271
Okwu DE, Josiah C. Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006; 5(4):357-361.
McMillan JR, Watson IA, Ali M, Jaafar W. Evaluation and comparison of algal cell disruption methods: microwave, water bath, blender, ultrasonic and laser treatment. Applied Energy. 2013; 103:128-34.
Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: a review. IPS. 2011; 1(1):98-106.
Wahid A. Physiological implications of metabolite biosynthesis for net assimilation of heat-stress tolerance of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) sprouts. J Plant Res. 2007;120:219-28.
Jiang W, Huang B. Drought and heat stress injury to two cool-season turfgrasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Sci. 2001;41:436-42.
Vankar P, Srivastava J. Evaluation of anthocyanin content in red and blue flowers. International Journal of Food Engineering. 2010;6(4):1-11.
Volf I, Ignat I, Neamtu M, Popa V. Thermal stability, antioxidant activity, and photo-oxidation of natural polyphenols. Chemical Papers. 2013 Apr 5. doi: 10.2478/s11696-013-0417-6
Rabeta MS, Nabil ZA. Total phenolic compounds and scavenging activity in Clitorea ternatea and Vitex negundo Linn. IFRJ. 2013;20(1):495-500.
Mukherjee PK, Kumar V, Kumar NS, Heinrich M. The Ayurvedic medicine Clitoria ternatea- from traditional use to scientific assessment. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008;120:291-301.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY). However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.