Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Cissus quadrangularis L.
AbstractTraditional system of medicine practiced since time immemorial has emerged as an alternative for modern medicine as it is economical, nature-based and without side effects. Medicinal plant Cissus quadrangularis L. has been used in the Indian system of traditional medicine due to its easier propagation and availability. The phytochemical composition of the plant mainly consists of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, benzenoids, phenols, and total protein. The stem is the most important part of the plant with various therapeutic properties. The plant exhibits anti-arthritis, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-microbial, anti-hemorrhoidal, anthelmintic, and other pharmacological properties. The plant has traditionally been used in the treatment of broken bones, rheumatic pains, bowel infections, burns, wounds, eye disorders, menstrual disorders, boils, asthma, gastritis, piles hemorrhoids, anemia, and indigestion. This systematic review documented the phytochemical composition of various plant parts along with evaluating research articles for designing the pharmacological application of the plant and its use in drug industries.
Pallie MS, Perera PK, Kumarasinghe N, Arawwawala M, Goonasekara CL. Ethnopharmacological Use and Biological Activities of Tragia involucrata L. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020; 2020, Art. ID 8848676.
Pandey S, Shukla, A, Pandey S, Pandey A. Morphology, chemical composition and therapeutic potential of Somlata (Sarcostemma acidum Wight. & Arn.). Pharma Science Monitor. 2017;8(4):54-60.
Pandey S. Phytochemical constituents, pharmacological and traditional uses of Ocimum gratissimum L in tropics. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;4(11):4234-42.
Pandey S, Singh SK, Kumar N, Manjhi RS. Antiviral, antiprotozoal, antimalarial and insecticidal activities of Ocimum gratissimum L. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development. 2017;5(5):1-9.
Pandey S. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ocimum gratissimum L. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;9(12):26-31.
Pandey S, Kushwaha GR, Singh A, Singh A. Chemical composition and medicinal uses of Anacyclus pyrethrum. Pharma Science Monitor. 20189(1):551-60.
Pandey S. Morphology, chemical composition and therapeutic potential of Stevia rebaudiana. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;5(04):2260-6.
Pandey S, Sharma A, Panika G, Kumar M. Morphological studies, traditional and industrial uses of Bixa Orellana, A review. Current Science International. 2019;08(01):70-4.
Pandey S, Kushwaha S, Singh S, Chaurasia S, Mishra K. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Cordia macleodii Hook. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences. 2020;6(12):216-20.
Haruna A, Yahaya SM. Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Bioactive Compounds from Plants and Soil Microbes: a Review. Chemistry Africa. 2021;4:231–48.
Pandey S, Shukla, A, Pandey S, Pandey A. An overview of resurrecting herb ‘Sanjeevani’ (Selaginella bryopteris) and its pharmacological and ethnomedicinal uses. The Pharma innovations. 2017;6(2):11-4.
Pandey S, Patel A, Singh B, Gupta RK. Morphological, anatomical and phytochemical screening of medicinal herb Boerhaavia diffusa L. International Journal of Advance and Innovative Research. 2019;6(2):96-100.
Pandey S, Patel D, Mishra P, Tiwari R. Morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological study of Helicteres isora (Marorphali). International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021;6(3): 13-17.
Kumar TS, Jegadeesan M. Physico-chemical profile of cissus quadrangularis L. Var-I in different soils. Anc Sci Life. 2006; 6(1-2):50-8.
Austin A, Kannan R, Jegadeesan M. Pharmacognostical studies on Cissus quadrangularis L. variant I & II. Anc Sci Life. 2004;23(4):33-47.
Nawghare CG, Taur AT, Sawate AR. Studies on the physico-phytochemical and anti-arthritic properties of hadjod (Cissus quadrangularis) Stem Powder. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2017;6(5):443-5
Chan YY, Wang CY, Hwang TL, Juang SH, Hung HY, Kuo PC, et al. The Constituents of the Stems of Cissus assamica and Their Bioactivities. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 2018; 23(11): 2799.
Balasubramanian P, Jayalakshmi K, Vidhya N, Prasad R, Sheriff AK, Kathiravan G, et al. Antiviral activity of ancient system of ayurvedic medicinal plant Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae). J Basic Clin Pharm. 2009;1(1):37-40.
Suhashini R, Chandra JH. Study of antibacterial potential and phytochemical constituents of three sided Cissus quadrangularis. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2015;7(4):1466-1469.
Prabhavathi RM, Prasad MP, Jayaramu M. Studies on Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of Cissus quadrangularis. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2016;7(4):11-17.
Yadav P. Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. 2016;4(4):287-9.
Dhanasekaran S. Phytochemical characteristics of aerial part of Cissus quadrangularis (L) and its in-vitro inhibitory activity against leukemic cells and antioxidant properties. Saudi J Biol Sci.2020;27(5):1302-9.
Thakur A, Jain V, Hingorani L, Laddha KS. Phytochemical Studies on Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Phcog Res. 2009;1:213-5.
Mukhopadhyay T, Madhavi M. Chemical Constituents and Melanin Promotion activity of Cissus quadranglaris Linn. Semantic Scholar. 2011; Corpus ID: 96804859.
Chenniappan J, Sankaranarayanan A, Arjunan S. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Cissus quadrangularis L. stem extracts against Avian Pathogens and Determination of its Bioactive Constituents using GC-MS. Journal of Scientific Research, 2020;64(1):90-6.
Pathomwichaiwat T, Ali Z, Abe N, Khan IA, Ochareon P, Prathanturarug S. New dammarane-type triterpenes from antiosteoporotic hexanes extract of Cissus quadrangularis L. Planta Med. 2014; 80 - PD140.
Kumar P, Dev K, Sharma K, Sahai M, Maurya R. New lignan glycosides from Cissus quadrangularis stems. Nat Prod Res. 2019;33(2):233-8.
Jain S, Kohli S. Isolation and evaluation of chemical constituents of Cissus quadrangularis. 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products, October 26-28, 2015 Hyderabad, India. Nat Prod Chem Res. 2015;3:6.
Kumar TS, Anandan A, Jegadeesan M. Identification of chemical compounds in Cissus quadrangularis L. Variant-I of different sample using GC-MS analysis. Archives of Applied Science Research. 2012.4(4):1782-7.
Jain V, Thakur A, Hingorani L, Laddha KS. Lipid Constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Leaves. Phcog Res. 2009; 1:231-233.
Eswaran R, Anandan A, Doss A, Sangeetha G, Anand SP. Analysis of chemical composition of Cissus Quadrangularis Linn. by GC-MS. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012; 5(Suppl 2):139-40.
Brahmkshatriya HR, Shah KA, Ananthkumar GB, Brahmkshatriya MH. Clinical evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis as osteogenic agent in maxillofacial fracture: A pilot study. Ayu. 2015;36(2):169–73.
Raghavan RN, Somanathan N, Sastry TP. Evaluation of phytochemical-incorporated porous polymeric sponges for bone tissue engineering: a novel perspective. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2013;227(8):859-65.
Lakshmanan DK, Ravichandran G, Elangovan A, Jeyapaul P, Murugesan S, Thilagar S. Cissus quadrangularis (veldt grape) attenuates disease progression and anatomical changes in mono sodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced knee osteoarthritis in the rat model. Food Funct. 2020;11(9):7842-55.
Kanwar JR, Samarasinghe RM, Kumar K, Arya R, Sharma S, Zhou SF, et al. Cissus quadrangularis inhibits IL-1β induced inflammatory responses on chondrocytes and alleviates bone deterioration in osteotomized rats via p38 MAPK signaling. Drug design, development and therapy. 2015;9:2927–40.
Kumar R, Gupta YK, Singh S, Arunraja S. Cissus quadrangularis attenuates the adjuvant induced arthritis by down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine and inhibiting angiogenesis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;175:346-55.
Jadhav AN, Rafiq M, Devanathan R, Azeemuddin M, Anturlikar SD, Ahmed A, et al. Ketosteroid Standardized Cissus quadrangularis L. Extract and its Anabolic Activity: Time to Look Beyond Ketosteroid? Pharmacogn Mag. 2016;12(Suppl 2):S213-7.
Panthong A, Supraditaporn, W, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul T, Reutrakul V. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;110(2):264-70.
Srisook K, Palachot M, Mongkol N, Srisook E, Sarapusit S. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate extract from Cissus quadrangularis Linn may be involved with induction of heme oxygenase-1 and suppression of NF-κB activation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011; 133(3):1008-14.
Syed AA, Reza MI, Garg R, Goand UK, Gayen JR. Cissus quadrangularis extract attenuates diabetic nephropathy by altering SIRT1/DNMT1 axis. J Pharm Pharmacol. 202115:rgab078.
Chaudhari RL, Patil PS, Chaudhari RY, Bhangale JO. Antihyperglycaemic activity of ethanolic extract of cissus quadrangularis (l.) Leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2013;3(01):73-7.
Lekshmi RK, Rajesh R, Mini S. Ethyl acetate fraction of Cissus quadrangularis stem ameliorates hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress and suppresses inflammatory response in nicotinamide/streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Phytomedicine. 2015;22(10):952-60.
Lekshmi RK, Sreekutty MS, Mini S. The regulatory effects of Cissus quadrangularis on some enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharm Biol. 2015;53(8):1194-200.
Jiji MJ, Visalakshi S, Meenakshi P, Rathi MA, Thirumoorthi L, Chinna Guravaiah D, et al. Antilipidemic activity of Cissus quadrangularis and Tribulus terrestris on obesity in high fat fed Rats. Pharmacologyonline. 2009;2:1250-8.
Nash R, Azantsa B, Kuate D, Singh H, Oben J. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2019;98-106.
Murthy KNC, Vanitha A, Swamy MM, Ravishankar GA. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cissus quadrangularis L. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2003;6(2):99-105.
Jainu M, Devi CSS. In Vitro. and In Vivo. Evaluation of Free-Radical Scavenging Potential of Cissus quadrangularis. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2005;43(9):773-9.
Subramani B. Analysis of potential toxicological, phytochemical and anticancer properties from Cissus quandrangularis. Research Journal of Life Sciences, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences. 2018;4(3):94-105.
Ruskin RS, Priya Kumari VM, Gopukumar ST, Praseetha PK. Evaluation of Phytochemical, Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Cancerous Activity of Cissus quadrangularis from South-Western Ghats Regions of India. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2014; 8(1):12-5.
Pathak AK, Kambhoja S, Dhruv , Sandeep, Singh HP , Chand H. Anthelimintic activity of Cissus quadraangularis Linn Stem. Pharmacologyonline. 2010;3:15-18.
Mohanambal E, Shobana K, Sowmya Sree M, Kusuma GM, Satish K, Vijayakumar B. Isolation of Alcoholic Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis and Evaluation of InVitro Anthelmintic Activity. International Journal of Novel Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011;1(1):6-9.
Zenebe S, Feyera T, Assefa S. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extracts of Aerial Parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. and Leaves of Schinus molle L. against Haemonchus contortus. BioMed Research International. 2017; 2017, Article ID 1905987.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY). However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.