Fatty Acid Composition of Lycium (Solanaceae) Species

Keywords: Lycium, Box-thorn, Fatty Acid content, Iran

Abstract

Background and Aim: There are more than one hundred species of Lycium (Solanaceae) in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. These drought-resistant medicinal plants have several applications in traditional medicine and modern pharmacy. The fruits of these plants contain vitamins A, E, and C, flavonoids, and other valuable biological compounds. In the present study, the amounts and types of fatty acids in the fruit pulp of Lycium species have been determined. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from natural habitats in Iran. Cold methylation and gas chromatography were used to extract fatty acids. By examining the drawn curves, fatty acids were identified. The significance of the quantitative results was assessed by a one-way analysis of variance. Results: A total of 22 major fatty acids were observed in the fruit pulps of Lycium species. The highest diversity of fatty acids was observed in L. kopetdaghi. In 4 species of L. shawii, L. edgeworthii, L. ruthenicum, and L. depressum, cis-linoleic is the major and abundant fatty acid, and only in L. kopetdaghi, the palmitic acid is more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of the present study are in agreement with previous research. Due to the composition of valuable fatty acids in Lycium species, further research is recommended for its application in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

References

Montesano D, Rocchetti G, Cossignani L, Lucini L, Simonetti MS, Blasia F. Italian Lycium barbarum L. berry: Chemical characterization and nutraceutical value. Natural Product Communications. 2018;13(9).

Yossa Nzeuwa IB, Xia H, Shi Y, Yang C, Shah MW, Guo B, et al. Fatty acid and mineral contents of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. and antioxidant activity against isoproterenol‐induced acute myocardial ischemia in mice. Food science & nutrition. 2020;8(2):1075-81.

Nazem Bokaee Z, Kiarostami Kh, Rahchamani R. The study of carbohydrates of Lycium species in Iran. Journal of Applied Biology. 2015;28(2):19-32.

Gan L, Zhang SH, Liu Q, Xu HB. A polysaccharide-protein complex from Lycium barbarum upregulates cytokine expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2003;471(3): 217-222.

Chen Z, Tan BKH, Chan SH. Activation of T lymphocytes by polysaccharide–protein complex from Lycium barbarum L. International Immunopharmacology. 2008;8(12):1663-71.

Liu Z, Dang J, Wang Q, Yu M, Jiang L, Mei L, et al. Optimization of polysaccharides from Lycium ruthenicum fruit using RSM and its anti-oxidant activity. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2013;61:127-134.

Chung IM, Ali M, Nagella P, Ahmad A. New glycosidic constituents from fruits of Lycium chinense and their antioxidant activities. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2015;8(6):803-11.

Guo M, Shi T, Duan Y, Zhu J, Li J, Cao Y. Investigation of amino acids in wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum) by Solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2015;42:84-90.

Forino M, Tartaglione L, Dell’Aversano C, Ciminiello P. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries. Food Chemistry. 2016;194:1254-9.

Peng Q, Xu Q, Yin H, Huang L, Du Y. Characterization of immunologically active pectin from the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2014;64:69-75.

Dahech I, Farah W, Trigui M, Hssouna AB, Belghith H, Belghith KS, Abdallah FB. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Lycium shawii fruits extract. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2013;60:328-33.

Yu MS, Leung SKY, Lai SW, Che CM, Zee SY, So KF, et al. Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum against β-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Experimental gerontology. 2005;40(8-9):716-27.

Valizadeh H, Mahmoodi Kordi F, Koohkan R, Bahadori MB, Moridi Farimani M. Isolation and structure elucidation of coumarin and cinnamate derivatives from Lycium ruthenicum. Iranian Chemical Communication. 2014;2:277-82.

Endes Z, Uslu N, Özcan MM, Er F. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition and mineral contents of goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit. Journal of agroalimentary processes and technologies. 2015;21(1):36-40.

Boulila A, Bejaoui A. Lycium intricatum Boiss.: An unexploited and rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, 4-desmethylsterols and other valuable phytochemicals. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2015;14(1):59.

Folch J, Lees M, Stanley GHSA. A simple method for total lipid extraction and purification. J Biol Chem. 1957;226(1), 497-509.

Heydari R, Hosseini M. Determination of the Fatty Acid Composition of Amygdalus scoparia Kernels from Iran Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 2017;53:538-9.

Cantarelli PR, Regitano-d'Arce MAB, Palma ER. Physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of tomato seed oils from processing wastes. Scientia Agricola. 1993;50(1):117-20.

Feki H, Koubaa I, Jaber H, Makni J, Damak M. Characteristics and chemical composition of Solanum elaeagnifolium seed oil. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. (Asian Res. Publ. Netw.). 2013;8(9):708-12.

Published
2022-09-30
Section
Original Article