Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj <p><strong>ISSN: 2538-2144 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal </strong>is a <strong>free of charge</strong>, <strong>open access</strong>, quarterly <strong>peer-reviewed journal</strong> which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of&nbsp;<strong>herbal medicines.</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal is supported and published by <strong><em><a href="http://en.lums.ac.ir">Lorestan University of Medical Sciences</a>, Khorramabad, Iran</em></strong></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lorestan University of Medical sciences en-US Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2538-2144 <p>Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p><p><span>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</span> <span>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license <span>(</span><span dir="RTL"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span dir="LTR">CC-BY)</span></span></span></span></a></span><span>.</span> However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.</span></p> An Ethno-Botanical Survey of Plants Used in Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment: A Case Study of Gusau in Nigeria http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/868 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease, is known as the most prevalent type of polyarticular inflammatory arthritis with a variety of features, including continual synovial inflammation, bony erosions, and progressive destruction with varying physical disability and degrees of pains<em>. </em>The aim of this study is to provide the knowledge about plants used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment by people residing in Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The survey was carried out using an electronic questionnaire to obtain information about plants used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The plants that were used, part of the plant(s), mode of preparation, and transferability of knowledge were documented.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> About 12 plant species, i.e.<em> Allium sativum</em> Linn<em>., Curcuma longa</em> Linn.<em>, Xylopia aethiopica</em> (Dunal) A. Rich.<em>, Zingiber officinale</em> Roscoe.<em>, Telfairia occidentalis</em> Hook.f.<em>, Moringa oleifera</em> Lam.<em>, Eleusine indica</em> (L.) Gaertn.<em>, Vernonia amygdalina </em>Del.<em>, Momordica charantia</em> Linn.<em>, Persea americana</em> Mill.<em>, Vitellaria paradoxa</em> C.F.Gaertn.<em>, </em>and<em> Nigella sativa</em> Linn. were reported in a different frequency, with 16.83% of the respondents reporting herbal mixtures without a knowledge source of the plants. The plant parts used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment were roots, leaves, bulbs, fruits, and stems prepared in different forms like grinding, decoction, infusion, herbal mixture, and blending.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is a great level of transfer of these medicinal plants' knowledge to friends and family members. This ethnobotanical survey has shown these plants' local uses in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.</p> Ayodeji Oluwatobi Ojetunde Geoffrey Timothy Tongshuwar Ayandunmola Folake Oyegoke Toyese Oyegoke Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 4 10.22087/hmj.v6i4.868 Effectiveness of household Plants in Phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activity, and antioxidants with different solvents http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/814 <p>The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts obtained from <em>Acalypha indica, Azadirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis </em>and<em> Murraya koneigii </em>were studied. In the present work, plant extracts were prepared using ethanol, methanol, and water as solvents. Crude and soxhlet method were used for extraction process. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done to reveal the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, saponins, steroids, and anthocyanins. Quantitative analysis were done for the estimation of phenolic content and vitamin C. Soxhlet methanolic leaf extracts of <em>Acalypha indica</em> (4.80mg/ml) showed high level of phenolic content and Vitamin C content was found to be high in methanolic crude and soxhlet extract of <em>Murraya koenigii </em>(3.7mg/ml and 2.4mg/ml). Antimicrobial assay was carried out by agar disk diffusion method against seven bacterial strains. Gram positive organisms such as <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>and gram-negative organisms like<em> Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter faecalis and Escherichia coli </em>were used. The antimicrobial activities of each extract were assessed by measuring the diameter zone of inhibition. The plant extracts tested were highly effective against <em>Proteus mirabilis</em> and <em>Enterobacter fecalis</em>. Compared to aqueous extracts, methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed more antimicrobial activity. Methanolic extract of <em>Lawsonia inermis</em> showed higher zone of inhibition compare to other extracts.</p> K V Radha Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 6 4 10.22087/hmj.v6i1.814 Dioscorides on Pistacia lentiscus L. and Marrubium vulgare L. through pharmacological properties of today. http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/850 John Pouris Frantzeska Stylianou Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 6 4 10.22087/hmj.v6i4.850 Effect of Saffron on serum zinc and copper in patients with metabolic syndrome http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/818 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing globally. Previous studies have shown that saffron has anti-oxidative effects. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are important trace elements involved in antioxidant protection. We aimed to investigate the effects of saffron supplements on serum levels of Cu, Zn and SOD in subjects with MetS.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: This randomized double-blind clinical trial comprised 70 subjects with MetS, aged18-75 years, who referred to the Nutrition Clinic in Ghaem Hospital. They were divided into 2 groups: 1- saffron group: taking a capsule of saffron 100 mg/kg/day (50 mg twice a day) (n=35); 2- placebo group: taking a capsule of placebo (twice a day) (n=35), for a period of 12 weeks. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc and copper levels in all subjects. Serum SOD activity determined using pyrogallol indirect spectrophotometric assay. SPSS version 18 was used for all the statistical analysis.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Fifty-six subjects completed the study. There were no significant differences in baseline features between the saffron and placebo groups (p&gt; 0.05). The changes in serum zinc levels at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention were significant between the saffron and placebo groups (p=0.041), (Table 2). While, there were no significant differences changes in serum copper, ZN/Cu and SOD1 between 2 study groups before and after the intervention.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p><p>The results of current study showed that saffron supplementation for a period of 12 weeks can increase serum Zn level in patients with MetS.</p> Maryam Saberi-Karimian Susan Darroudi Fatemeh Shaghi Shima Tavallaei Hamide Safarian Gordon A. Ferns Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan Tayyebeh Kermany Maryam Shemshian Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 6 4 10.22087/hmj.v6i2.818 Physicochemical Properties of Bromelain Adsorption on Magnetic Carbon Nanoparticles and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Breast Cancer Cells http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/839 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> As a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the pineapple stalk, Bromelain (Br) is known as an anticancer agent. In the first stage of this research, we studied the physicochemical factors which influence the maximum adsorption of Br on magnetic carbone nanoparticles (MCNPs) and then the anticarcinogenic activity of Br enzyme alone. Moreover, they were evaluated in combination with these particles on MCF-7 breast cancer cells.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The operational determinants influencing Br adsorption such as pH, contact time (30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min), adsorbent dosage (1 gr/L, 5 gr/L), initial Br concentration (50, 150 and 300 mg/L) and temperature (35 and 50°C) were studied in detail. Then cancer cells were exposed to various Br concentrations (0.1 μg/mL, 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL) and the cell viability was determined by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay after 24, 48 and 72 h.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The highest adsorption of Br on MCNPs was 44 mg/g and was achieved at pH 5, 35°C and 120 min with 50 mg/L initial Br concentration and 1g/L MCNPs. The adsorption used the Freundlich and pseudo first-order kinetic models. The results indicated that MCNPs could be a potential effective adsorbent for the removal of Br. MTT assay indicated that a 100 μg/mL concentration of Br alone (after 24 h) and in combination with MCNPs (after 72 h) could efficiently inhibit the MCF-7 breast cancer cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although the dose of Bromelain on synthesized MCNPS is about 440 times less than Bromelain alone, it possesses a significant cytotoxicity (P&lt;0.001). Moreover, synthesized MCNPS had a considerable advantage of slow delivery which is favorable for the treatment of cancer.</p> Fatemeh Karimian Rad Mina Ramezani Azadeh Mohammadgholi Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 6 4 10.22087/hmj.v5i4.839 Single-Drop Microextraction Using Two Fast Methods: Microwave and Heat for the Determination of the Volatile Compounds from Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss and Hausskn http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/787 <p>A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) based approach is proposed in the current study in order to specify the essential oil constituents in <em>Grammosciadium platycarpum </em>Boiss. This method was developed following the microwave assisted headspace single-drop micro-extraction (MH-SDME). The optimization was done for the MH-SDME parameters that included the microwave power, the sample weight, the nature of the extracting solvent, the extraction time, as well as the volume of the micro-drop. Functioning of the approach proposed here was compared with the traditional hydrodistillation (HD) and single-drop micro-extraction (SDME). In order to identify the volatile compounds in <em>G. platycarpum</em>, the MH -SDME and HD -SDME methods were carried out successfully in the current work. These methods identified 31 compounds in <em>G. platycarpum</em>. In comparison with HD and HD -SDME approaches, MH-HS-SDME is a basic, quick, and economical approach for analyzing the essential oils in <em>G. platycarpum.</em></p> marziyeh Piryaei Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 6 4 10.22087/hmj.v6i4.787 Preliminary Comparative Investigation on Hypotensive Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Securidaca longepedunculata, Olax subscorpioidea and Persea americana on Albino Rats http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/821 <em>Securidaca longipedunculata, </em><em>Olax subscorpioidea </em>and <em>Persea americana</em> are medicinal plants that serves several purposes in treating many ailments. In this study, the cardiovascular activity of ethanolic extract of the plants<em> </em>were separately assessed using rats of average weight of 181g. 20 Rats were utilized for each plant. Cardiovascular parameters were recorded through cannulation of the carotid artery on anaesthetized normotensive rats, following intravenous administration of ethanolic extract of <em>S. longepedunculata</em> (50-200mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), <em>O. subscorpioidea </em>(12.5 -50mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and <em>P. americana </em>(200 and 400mg kg<sup>-1</sup>).<em> </em>Acetylcholine and nifedipine served as reference drugs while 0.9% saline was control. After administration of the extracts, physiological reaction of the animals were recorded via a polygraph device fastened to a pressure transducer. Extract caused significant (p˂0.05) decreased pulse rate, mean arterial, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These extracts elicited significant blood pressure variation patterns that suggested an increased hypotensive activities. This may be adduced to the likely presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids in the plants that could possibly act as vasodilators or inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzymes. It may likely act like calcium channel blockers, β-blockers or natriuretic peptides. This pharmacological investigation therefore gives credence and justification to the ethnomedical, anecdotal and folkloric uses of <em>S. longepedunculata, O. subscorpioidea </em>and <em>P. americana</em> as blood depressants and revealed that <em>O. subscorpioidea</em> is more potent followed by <em>S. longepedunculata</em> and <em>P. americana</em> being the least potent. Adeola Michael Oloyede Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-10-13 2021-10-13 6 4 10.22087/hmj.v6i1.821 Subchronic Toxicity of the Ethanolic Extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides on Albino Wistar Mice (Mus musculus) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/806 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> <em>Lecaniodiscus cupanioides</em> has been used in traditional therapies in Nigeria for the management of several ailments. This study investigated its subchronic toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> 30 mice (20–25g) were placed in three groups of 10 mice. Groups A and B were orally administered 100 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic extract respectively for 49 days, while group C received distilled water as the control. At expiration of the treatment, the animals were sacrificed to harvest blood and internal organs for hematologic, biochemical, antioxidant and histologic analyses.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Hematologic analysis revealed increased monocytes in all the groups. Biochemical and Electrolytes analytes did not show any significant difference. Antioxidant results showed a dose-dependent significant decrease in super oxide dismutase (SOD). Glutathione (GSH) revealed a significant increase in 400mg/kg. No pathology was observed in the heart, but mild toxicity in the kidneys, loss of alveoli architecture in the lungs, inflammation, and congestion of portal triads and central vein in the liver were observed. Increased monocytes observed may depict antibody and anti-infection potentials of the extract. Decreased value of RBC, Hb at higher doses, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) at lower doses suggest hemolytic anaemia. Insignificant difference in liver enzymes may suggest extract is not hepatotoxic.&nbsp; Insignificant increased creatinine and urea implies that the extract is not nephrotoxic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The extract displayed a great potential to inhibit free radicals. It increased the antioxidant defense system and GSH at 400mg/kg. Increased SOD and catalase suggest the upregulation of protein which culminates in the clean-up of free radicals and decreasing oxidative stress, thus protecting tissues from extremely reactive radicals.</p> Adeola Michael Oloyede Bodunrin Ottu Adebayo Ogunsanwo Samuel Sobiye Bolarinwa Kehinde Catherine Aromolaran Chinwedu Ogidi Ekene Okafor Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-10-13 2021-10-13 6 4 10.22087/hmj.v5i4.806 The Importance of Herbal Medicines Consumption in COVID-19 Epidemic http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/865 <p>Up now, there are currently no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines are developed against SARS-CoV2. WHO identifies herbal and traditional medicines for COVID-19, have particular importance and many benefits. Therefore, should be tested for probable side effects, and investigating their efficacy and safety through precise clinical trials is crucial. Regarding the COVID-19 epidemic conditions and the lack of definitive treatment, here we propose the use of herbal medicines, especially anti-inflammatory herbal drugs in the control of mild forms of SARS-CoV2 infection. As attempts are underway to discover a treatment for COVID-19, the use of herbal medicine products to prevent and treatment of COVID-19 must be insistently investigated.<br /> We searched several electronic databases for finding the reasons for the use of herbal medicines, especially anti-inflammatory herbal drugs during the COVID-19 Epidemic.</p><p>In this article, using references, we have mention 8 reasons for using herbal medicines during the coronavirus epidemic. Regarding to the high cost and unavailability of some common COVID-19 drugs, the use of herbal remedies can be very beneficial for the treatment of mild cases. Nevertheless, the potential interests of herbal remedies could due to their high confidence in patients, efficacy, safety, and low costs.</p><p><strong> </strong></p> Amirhossein Dolati-Somarin Bahareh Abd-Nikfarjam Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-10-13 2021-10-13 6 4 10.22087/hmj.v6i3.865 Popular and Famous Vegetation in Traditional Medicine of Lorestan Province http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/838 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> About 2000 plant species grow in Lorestan province. Ethnobotany and folk healers have played major roles in the health of human beings since ancient times. The aim of this study was to identify and introduce the most widely used and common medicinal plants in traditional medicine of Lorestan province.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In order to gather information about its medicinal properties and to learn about people's beliefs about the famous species of the region, several local people, including nomadic, rural residents of urban areas and healers of the province were interviewed. The local medicinal information was collected using semi-structured methods, interviews, and personal observations. The frequency of citation (FC) and relative citation frequency (RFC) indices were used to determine the significance of medicinal species. Plant specimens were collected from habitats of Lorestan province and then were identified and deposited in the herbarium.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the samples collected from different habitats of the province, 38 most widely used medicinal species belong to 20 plant families with the most extensive traditional use that were identified as the most famous medicinal plants in the region. According to the results of the present study, nomadic people (<em>Kouch rou</em> in Persian) had the most use of medicinal plants compared to other groups participating in the interviews.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The high values ​​of FC and RFC indices for each species indicate the indigenous medicinal knowledge about the medicinal properties and treatment of diseases with that certain species. Medicinal plants in Lorestan are mainly used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, kidney diseases and nerve sedatives. Recording and publishing the local names of medicinal plants in the encyclopedia of the country will play pivotal roles in recognizing these potentials and exploiting them.</p> Mohammad Mehrnia * Zahra Hosseini Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal 2021-10-13 2021-10-13 6 4 100 112 10.22087/hmj.v5i3.838