Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj <p><strong>ISSN: 2538-2144 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal </strong>is a <strong>free of charge</strong>, <strong>open access</strong>, quarterly <strong>peer-reviewed journal</strong> which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of&nbsp;<strong>herbal medicines.</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal is supported and published by <strong><em><a href="http://en.lums.ac.ir">Lorestan University of Medical Sciences</a>, Khorramabad, Iran</em></strong></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lorestan University of Medical sciences en-US Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2538-2144 <p>Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p><p><span>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</span> <span>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license <span>(</span><span dir="RTL"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span dir="LTR">CC-BY)</span></span></span></span></a></span><span>.</span> However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.</span></p> Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Lavender on Spatial Learning and Memory of Rats Undergoing Pentylenetetrazol Kindling http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1048 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Since memory impairment is one of the most common complaints in patients with epilepsy, development of new ways to improve this dysfunction is of high significance. The present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of the aqueous extract of lavender (AEL) on spatial learning and memory in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Forty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including the sham, control, and experimental groups. Pretreatment of the control(C), sham(S) and experimental (E) groups included a, 13 injections of PTZ (i.p. every other day); b, 20 days of normal saline and AEL in doses 100mg/kg, 200mgkg and 400 mg/kg in S and E groups (i.p. every day) respectively. Finally, the spatial memory and learning were examined by the Morris water maze (4 trials/day in five consecutive days) and the probe test was performed in the 6<sup>th</sup> day.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were no significant differences between the treatment groups with the sham and control groups in terms of time latency, the distance traveled, and movement speed to find the hidden platform(P&gt;0.05). In contrast, 200 mg/kg of AEL remarkably reduced the time latency to find the platform (P=0.02).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The aqueous extract of lavender in moderate doses can lead to improved spatial retrieval memory in kindled rats, although it does not have any effect on spatial learning. Given the effect of AEL on learning and memory, further dose- dependent studies are required to reveal the possible effects of different doses of AEL.</p> Morteza Mousavi Hassanzadeh Mina Houseini Ali Ghazavi Mohammad Javad Samadi Shima Nourigheimasi Mohammad Reza Palizvan * Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 8 4 10.22087/hmj.v8i2.1048 Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Characterization of the Antibacterial Compound from Sonneratia apetala Buch. Ham Leaves Collected from the Maharashtra Coast of India http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1057 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> <em>Sonneratia apetala</em> plant has been used in traditional medicine in south Asian countries for treating diarrhea, hepatitis, inflammation, wounds and ulcers. The leaf extract of this plant has shown promising antibacterial activity and it is essential to isolate that antibacterial compound in pure form.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this study, a bioassay-guided isolation and characterization approach was taken to isolate and characterize the antibacterial compound from the <em>S. apetala</em> Buch. Ham leaf. Petroleum ether, acetone and water extracts were prepared and tested against eight human pathogenic bacteria. Water and acetone extracts have shown the inhibition of bacteria but the more promising acetone extract was carried forward for further study. The compound was isolated using the preparative column chromatography method. The isolated compound was studied for antibacterial activity using TLC-bioautography. Further characterization was done using the UV-Vis spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of the present study showed the presence of various valuable phytochemical constituents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The presence of an antibacterial compound highlights the importance of this plant as a source of phytochemicals with medicinal properties.&nbsp; This study indicated that the geographical location of the plant is one of the factors which determines the antibacterial potency of the leaf extract.</p> Jaimini Sarkar* Chiradeep Sarkar Bhaskar Laxman Jadhav Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2024-02-16 2024-02-16 8 4 10.22087/hmj.v8i2.1057 Reproductive-Enhancing Potentials of Methanol Extracts of Sphenostylis stenocarpa Seeds in Male Wistar Rats http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/977 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Medicinal plant extracts are still commonly used in folk medicine in developing countries. The seed of African yam bean (<em>Sphenostylis stenocarpa</em>) is a very expensive food legume in Nigeria. Previous studies on <em>S. stenocarpa</em> plant have proven it to be of an outstanding medical significance. Hence, this study investigated the reproductive-enhancing potentials of methanol extracts of <em>Sphenostylis stenocarpa</em> seeds in male Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A total of 144 adult rats were used for the experiment. They were divided into 4 groups (A – D) and replicated trice. Group A served as the normal control, while groups B, C and D received three graded doses (800, 1200 and 1600 mg/kg) of the extracts respectively by oral intubation. The rats' gonad characteristics, sperm parameters and hormonal analyses were determined weekly using standard procedures starting from week 0 (day 1) to week 12. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean weekly gonad characteristics of the male rats in the treatment groups showed overall dose and duration-dependent significant differences compared with the control. The body weights of the male rats significantly reduced (p&lt;0.05), whereas the testes weights, gonad somatic index, sperm count and sperm motility of the rats significantly increased (p&lt;0.05). Testosterone responded to the plant extracts. The testosterone levels of all the treated rats significantly increased.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The methanol seed extracts of <em>S. stenocarpa</em> demonstrated an overall potency to enhance the reproduction in the Wistar rats.</p> Collins Ugonna Ugokwe* Flora Ebere Ogbuke Vincent Chikwendu Ejere Joseph Effiong Eyo Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2024-01-19 2024-01-19 8 4 10.22087/hmj.v8i2.977 An Evaluation of Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Aqueous Extract of the Myrtus Communis L. Fruit in Male Mice http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/987 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> This study aimed to investigate the potential antidepressant-like effect of aqueous extract from fruits of <em>M.Communis L</em>. on mice.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>To carry out this investigation, after weighting, coding, and classifying the mice, they were divided into the following groups (n = 6): test groups (175, 350, and 700 mg/kg of <em>M. Communis</em> aqueous extract; i.p), the control group (20 mg/kg Fluoxetine, and 30 mg/kg Imipramine; i.p) and the blank group (normal saline i.p). Different doses of the extract, fluoxetine, and Imipramine were administrated daily for 28 days. Behavioral evaluations were performed using the tail suspension and forced swimming tests.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The aqueous extract of the <em>M. Communis</em> fruit did not reduce the immobility time in both TST and FST(P&gt;0.05). Moreover, the extract did not increase the climbing behavior in FST, which reveals the depressant-like effect of this herbal extract (P&gt;0.05). This depressant-like effect increased dose-dependently.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of this study suggest that the aqueous extract of the <em>M. Communis</em> fruit has a depressant-like activity in mice models.</p> Somayeh Esmaeili* Zahra Mahdian Shadi Sarahroodi* Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2024-01-08 2024-01-08 8 4 10.22087/hmj.v8i2.987 Effects of Herbal Medicines on Wound Repair via the Modulation of the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF): A Mini-Review http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1053 <p>The transforming-growth factor β1 (<em>TGFβ1</em>) and basic fibroblast growth factor (<em>bFGF</em>) are two factors with significant roles in the wound healing process. There are two therapeutic approaches to wound repair consisting of beauty wise and strength wise. This study was conducted to review the roles of herbal medicines in the wound repair process focusing on the roles of TGFβ1 and bFGF according to approaches. Scientific databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched to find review articles about using herbal medicines in wound repair. Further evidence confirmed the efficiency of aloe vera in comparison with other medicinal plants. That is, it could up-regulate both TGFβ1 and bFGF. Wound repair is a very complex process that requires interdisciplinary management. Targeting different parts of this complex mechanism may have different clinical results. Medicinal plants are not exceptions, and the use of these plants may have different outcomes. The management strategy of wounds depends on several factors.</p> Maryam Hormozi Mandana Beigi Boroujeni* Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2024-01-08 2024-01-08 8 4 10.22087/hmj.v8i4.1053 A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Fatty Acids in Ziziphus Species in Iran http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/978 <p><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>The genus <em>Ziziphus</em> belongs to the Rhamnaceae family with 70 species of trees in the world. There are three native species of this genus in Iran. The fruit of these trees is edible and has medicinal value.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong><em>Ziziphus</em> samples were gathered from natural habitats in Iran. We used cold methylation and gas chromatography to extract and identify of fatty acids. Identification of the fatty acids was carried out through the investigation of the curves. The significance of the quantitative results was evaluated using one-way analysis of variance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study of fatty acids in pulps and seeds of the <em>Ziziphus</em> species showed that Oleic acid was the indicator in the studied species. Differences in the type of fatty acid were observed between the species. Examination of the fatty acids in the <em>Ziziphus</em> seed revealed that oleic acid is the main constituent of this oil and there is a quantitative and qualitative difference in the fat of the species.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The fatty acids in seeds are higher than the fatty acids in the fruit pulp and the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids is higher than that of saturated fatty acids. The findings of this study are consistent those of with previous studies.</p> Maryam Keshavarzi* Kefayat Sharifat Faezeh Fazeli Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2024-01-08 2024-01-08 8 4 10.22087/hmj.v8i4.978 Phytochemical Screening by Metabolites Histolocalization in the Medicinal Plants Artemisa Annua and Argania Spinosa http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/857 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Plants have been used since antiquity to treat different diseases. <em>Artemisia annua</em> is particularly an interesting plant due to its anti-malarial and anti-cancer properties. <em>Argania spinosa</em> is also a bioactive drug. Secondary metabolite histolocalization made it possible here to show molecules presence, with antioxidant properties.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The method chosen here is metabolites chemical characterization at tissue level by histolocalization.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The histolocalization study of the drug <em>A. annua</em> showed the presence of phenolic compounds, both at stem level in hypodermis and in marrow as in parenchyma and xylem level leaf. Flavonoids are more particularly localized at xylem and pericycle in stem level and at xylem, pericycle and parenchyma in leaf level. Finally, catechic tannins are found in the parenchyma of these 2 organs. The histolocalization study of <em>A. spinosa</em> showed phenolic compounds precisely located in phelloderm and phloem for vascular bundle. Terpenoids and phenols are found in the bark, parenchyma and marrow for stem and in palisade and spongy mesophyll for leaf. Alkaloids are found in small amounts in stem liber and in leaf parenchyma. Finally, a slight presence of carotenoids is found in palisade and leaf phloem.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Good antioxidant activity was obtained by DPPH assay for <em>A. annua</em> (<em>aerial part decoction</em>) with an EC<sub>50</sub> of 0.29 mg/L and for <em>A.spinosa</em> with an EC<sub>50</sub> of 0.20 mg/L (<em>testa decoction</em>), 0.0075 mg/L (<em>testa ethanolic extract</em>), 0.0762 mg/L (<em>ethanolic almond extract</em>) and 0.0206 mg/L (<em>ethanolic leaf extract</em>).The results showed that testa has twice as powerful antioxidant activity as reference control (trolox).</p> Fatiha EL Babili* Romain Laleman Arthur Hourugou Maddalena Riess Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal 2024-01-03 2024-01-03 8 4 10.22087/hmj.v8i2.857 The Effect of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Quercus infectoria Fruit Hulls (Jaft-E-Baloot) on Formalin-Induced Inflammation and Pain in Male Mice http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1011 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Herbal medicines have been used to alleviate inflammation and pain since ancient times, and their use is even on the rise. The <em>Quercus infectoria</em> plant has been commonly used for many years to treat inflammation and pain in alternative medicine. Various species and different parts of this plant have been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the extract of the fruit hulls of <em>Q. infectoria</em> to find a plant-based alternative to the available drugs with fewer side effects.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study used 60 male NMRI mice with a weight range of 35-40 g. The mice were randomized into a negative control group which only received formalin, a positive control group that received diclofenac 200 µg/kg, and four experimental groups that received 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of the fruit hulls extraction. Formalin was injected into the paws of the mice to induce inflammation and pain. Then, the paw volume was measured during the first three hours after injection with a digital Plethysmometer. Pain score was also evaluated in three stages at 60-minute intervals.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the fruit hulls extract could reduce inflammation at all doses, particularly at 200 mg/kg in comparison with the negative control group (p &lt; 0.001). Moreover, the fruit hulls extract relieved pain at different doses in acute and chronic stages.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The fruit hulls extract alleviated the pain and reduced the inflammation in mices' paws depending on the dose. Therefore, it can be considered as a possible alternative to chemical drugs.</p> Ali Karimian Amirhossein Nafari Amirmehdi Sarvestani Amir Zamani Nima Behnaminia Rasool Mohammadi Mohammad Almasian Ali Asghar Kiani* Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2024-01-03 2024-01-03 8 4 26 33 10.22087/hmj.v8i1.1011 An in vivo Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Fruit Tablets along with the Olive (Olea europaea) Leaves Extract http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1022 <p><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>This paper reports, for the first time, the in vivo analgesic activity (AnA) of date (<em>Phoenix dactylifera</em> L., variety <em>Mech-Degla</em>) fruit tablets along with 3 % (w/w) lyophilized aqueous extract of olive (<em>Olea europaea</em>) leaves (DT-OLE).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>For both the date fruit powder (DFP) and olive leaves extract (OLE), flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and anthocyanins were qualitatively identified. In the case of OLE, the qualitative screening of phenolic compounds was also carried out using HPLC. The AnA (in %) was evaluated through the acetic acid writhing test on 30 NMRI mice.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The DT-OLE at a dose of 200 mg / kg IP showed an interesting AnA value (42 %), which is equivalent to approximately 0.44 times of that (96 %) of paracetamol (taken as reference), with the DFP displaying the lowest AnA (4 %). Thus, the analgesic properties of DT-OLE might be attributed to OLE, and the DFP with the role of the taste masking agent.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The AnA of DT-OLE was demonstrated. However, further studies are required. In all cases, considering their composition, investigated tablets might be classified as healthy dried infusions, healthy natural candies or functional food.</p> Salem Benamara* Nadia Iguergaziz Aissa Boukhiar Arezki Bitam Asma Belkadi Imen Ladraa Soumia Gherbi Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 8 4 10.22087/hmj.v8i3.1022 Identification of Medicinal Plants Used to Enhance Appetite and Increase Weight in Aligudarz, Lorestan Province: An Ethnobotanical Study http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1054 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Anorexia is a disorder that can be annoying for patients in prolonged cases. It can lead to health-threatening problems. Today, different methods are used to increase appetite and weight. One of these methods is the use of medicinal plants. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the medicinal plants used to increase appetite and weight in Aligoudarz, Lorestan, Iran.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The present study is descriptive research. Sampling was carried out using the complete enumeration method, and 20 medicinal plant sellers took part in this study. Data were collected using a two-part questionnaire containing demographic characteristics form and characteristics of the medicinal plants used in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the study indicated that 17 medicinal plants belonging to 11 plant families could strengthen appetite and increase weight. The most abundant plant recommended by the medicinal plant sellers was alfalfa (25.71%), followed by wheat (14.28%). In terms of the plant family, the most used plants were related to the Poaceae family (18%), followed by Asteraceae (17%) and Apiaceae (17%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Iran is a rich country in the field of medicinal plants, it is recommended to identify plants related to appetite enhancement and weight gain through review studies and then conduct laboratory studies to confirm their effect so that consumers can use these plants with more scientific support.</p> Masoomeh Abdi* Kiomars Karamizadeh Iraj Salimikia Elahe Sarlak Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 8 4 17 25 10.22087/hmj.v7i4.1054