Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj <p><strong>ISSN: 2538-2144 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal </strong>is a <strong>free of charge</strong>, <strong>open access</strong>, quarterly <strong>peer-reviewed journal</strong> which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of&nbsp;<strong>herbal medicines.</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal is supported and published by <strong><em><a href="http://en.lums.ac.ir">Lorestan University of Medical Sciences</a>, Khorramabad, Iran</em></strong></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lorestan University of Medical sciences en-US Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2538-2144 <p>Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p><p><span>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</span> <span>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license <span>(</span><span dir="RTL"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span dir="LTR">CC-BY)</span></span></span></span></a></span><span>.</span> However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.</span></p> Fatty acids in Aristolochia L. Seeds from Iran http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/923 <p>None</p> Mojdeh Khajeh Maryam Keshavarzi Faezeh Fazeli Mehdi Ghanavati Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i3.923 Fatty Acid Composition of Lycium (Solanaceae) Species http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/924 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> There are more than one hundred species of <em>Lycium</em> (Solanaceae) in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. These drought-resistant medicinal plants have several applications in traditional medicine and modern pharmacy. The fruits of these plants contain vitamins A, E, and C, flavonoids, and other valuable biological compounds. In the present study, the amounts and types of fatty acids in the fruit pulp of <em>Lycium</em> species have been determined.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The samples were collected from natural habitats in Iran. Cold methylation and gas chromatography were used to extract fatty acids. By examining the drawn curves, fatty acids were identified. The significance of the quantitative results was assessed by a one-way analysis of variance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 22 major fatty acids were observed in the fruit pulps of <em>Lycium</em> species. The highest diversity of fatty acids was observed in <em>L. kopetdaghi</em>. In 4 species of <em>L. shawii</em>, <em>L. edgeworthii, L. ruthenicum,</em> and <em>L. depressum</em>, cis-linoleic is the major and abundant fatty acid, and only in <em>L. kopetdaghi</em>, the palmitic acid is more abundant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of the present study are in agreement with previous research. Due to the composition of valuable fatty acids in <em>Lycium</em> species, further research is recommended for its application in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.</p> Fatemeh Mousavimanesh Maryam Keshavarzi * Zahra Nazem Bokaee Faezeh Fazeli Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i1.924 Effects of Salicylic Acid and Chitosan Foliar Application on Extract Components and the Antibacterial Activity of Melissa officinalis L. http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/846 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> <em>Melissa officinalis</em> L. is a medicinal herb with antibacterial properties. This research was carried out to investigate the effects of the foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) and chitosan (Ch.) on ethanolic extracts components and antibacterial activity of <em>M. officinalis</em>L.in the flowering stage.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The antibacterial activities of the ethanol extracts were investigated using the agar dilution method, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimal bactericidal concentration against five bacteria, i.e. <em>S. aurous</em>, <em>B. subtilis</em>, <em>E. coli</em>, <em>S. enterica</em> and <em>P. mirabilis</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The major components were citronellal, Z-Citral, E-Citral, caryophyllene oxide, caryophyllene, linalool, carvacrol, α-Pinene and geraniol. The result showed that distinct concentration of Ch. and SA had remarkable effects on the chemical constituents of <em>M. officinalis </em>L. extract. All the examined bacteria were sensitive to the extracts of <em>M. officinalis </em>L. and antimicrobial activities of extracts against the examined bacteria depending on the concentration of the foliar application. The highest and lowest diameters of inhibition zones of the plant extracts were on <em>S. aurous </em>and <em>P. mirabilis</em> respectively. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 78.25 ppm to 1250 ppm, whereas the MBC values ranged from 156.5 ppm to 1250 ppm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>S. aurous</em> and <em>E. coli </em>were the most sensitive bacteria in Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria respectively. It was also observed that Ch. treatments were more effective on Gram-negative bacteria, while SA treatments were more influential on Gram-positive bacteria</p> Negin Safari Kamal Abadi Naser Mohebalipour * Mehdi Oraei Hassan Nourafcan Assad Assadi Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i1.846 Genus Rubia: Therapeutic Effects and Toxicity: A Review http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/903 <p>The Rubiaceae family taxonomic classification is complex. Genus Rubia with 70 species belongs to Rubieae tribe of Rubioideae subfamily of the Rubiaceae family. These species have been widely distributed and cultivated around the world, and are mainly concentrated in the tropics. The effects of bioactive metabolites of various parts, particularly roots of Rubia species have been thoroughly examined, and their pharmacological and toxicological effects have been described. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-arthritic, antiseizure and antimicrobial effects as well as toxicological properties of Rubia species have been previously reported. This study was conducted as a literature survey of various species of Rubiaceae published from 1992 to 2020. Moreover, their toxic and protective effects on living organisms were summarized.</p> Marzieh Eskandarzadeh Akam Esmaeili Mohammad Reza Nikbakht Yukio Hitotsuyanagi Yuri N Shkryl Javad Ghasemian Yadegari Hassan Rezazadeh Javad Khalilifard * Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-08-09 2022-08-09 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v8i1.903 A Narrative Review on the Natural Remedies Used in the Prevention and Symptomatic Treatment of Constipation in the Middle East http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/879 <p>Constipation is a common issue in developed and developing countries. On account of the multifactorial nature of this bowel problem, it has been indicated that current conventional treatments have limited efficacy and a higher incidence of side effects. This article aims to review various natural remedies that have proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of constipation and is an attempt to provide a framework for a better understanding of the pharmacology of these herbs. Treatments were identified from electronic databases such as ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and Scopus. Out of 103 studies found via electronic search, 49 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Anthraquinone, saponin, and fiber-rich plants may increase the frequency of defecation through their bulking and/or stimulant laxative effects. The intake of some herbs or their isolated purgative active constituents can be useful in constipated patients. However, if the patient has tried natural remedies for more than three days without success, it is preferred to refer to a physician to know the underlying cause of constipation.</p> Sareh Dortaj * Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal 2022-08-09 2022-08-09 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i4.879 In Vitro Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, and Antioxidant Screening of Aqueous Extracts of Blue Ternate (Clitoria ternatea L.) Flower http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/867 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Extracts of <em>Clitoria ternatea </em>flowers obtained through laboratory standard methods have been constantly reported to have various medicinal activities. However, no reports on such properties are available for this flower’s extracts obtained through common domestic extraction procedures. This study aimed to determine and compare the aqueous extracts (leachate, decoction, tea, and homogenate) of <em>C. ternatea</em> flowers for their antibacterial, anticoagulant, and antioxidant activities.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Agar well diffusion and Lee-White test tube method were used for antibacterial and anticoagulant assays, respectively. Moreover, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant assays of the extracts were conducted through the floating disc assay, and DPPH scavenging activity, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the present study revealed that although the extracts exhibited antibacterial activities against <em>Salmonella enterica</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, they did not differ significantly at p&gt;0.05. The extracts did not exhibit <em>in vitro </em>anticoagulant activity. Only the homogenate preparations showed catalase activity while all the extracts showed DPPH scavenging activity with the flower decoction as the highest % DPPH RSA harmonic mean of 56.24%, followed by the leachate (45.03%), and the tea (38.79%) and homogenate (37.74%) as the least.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>C. ternatea</em> flowers extracted through common domestic extraction methods were revealed to have antibacterial, procoagulant, and antioxidant properties. The extracts could also be subjected to phytochemical screening and could be studied for their other bioactive properties.</p> Roque Merrick Dacullo Jayzon Gaspay Bitacura * Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal 2022-08-09 2022-08-09 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i3.867 An Investigation of the Establishment, Culture and Essential Oil Composition of Hyssopus Officinalis in Dry and Irrigated Farming in Barren Land http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/877 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> <em>Hyssopus officinalis L</em>. belonging to the family <em>Lamiaceaeis</em> a perennial herb known as a culinary and medicinal herb. This study was conducted to investigate the compatibility of culture and the effect of drought on the growth and essential oil compounds of hyssop in Lorestan province, Iran.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this study, we first evaluated the ability of hyssop plant with regard to adaption and establishment in Aligudarz region in Lorestan province. Then, hyssop was cultivated in irrigated and non-irrigated (dryland) conditions, and their essential oil changes were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the present study showed that the fresh and dry weight of established plants was 10590 and 3780 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively, which indicates the compatibility of hyssop plants in Aligudarz region. Moreover, the results showed that 95.8% of essential oil composition was determined in irrigated conditions that the highest amount of which was related to Isocamfopinone with 34.2%. Furthermore, the percentage of compounds such as Trans-pinocamphone (19%), Thymol (28.8%), Ortho-menth-8-ene-4-methanol (6.86%), ß–pinene (6.35%), Myrtenol (4.18%) and Pinocarvone (3.84%) had the highest amount of essential oil composition compared to other essential oil compounds. In dryland conditions, about 97.39% of the total essential oil compositions were identified. Also, it was found that the highest amount of these compounds was related to Isocamphopinone (38.63%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was found in this study that irrigated and dryland conditions had different effects on the essential oil compounds of the hyssop medicinal plant so that in both conditions some compounds increased and others decreased, and some were constant. Moreover, depending on the production goal, hyssop can be cultivated in each of these conditions.</p> Esfandiar Hassani Moghadam * Mahdi Shaaban Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v6i2.877 Triple Therapy with Garlic, Silymarin and Curcumin in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/917 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a mixture of garlic, silymarin, and curcumin on hepatic parameters and overall improvement of NAFLD.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Individuals between 18 and 70 years of age with altered liver enzymes and confirmed pattern of fatty liver in their hepatic ultrasound were entered into this randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial and assigned to two groups. They received either capsules containing curcumin, silymarin and garlic or an identical placebo. After 3 months, the patients were re-evaluated for laboratory tests, clinical evaluation, and liver fibroscan. Data were analyzed in consistent with the intention-to-treat approach.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After randomization and blinding, 50 individuals entered this study. The mean age of the participants was 42.51 ± 11.13 (mean± SD) years of old, and 80% of the participants were men. After triple therapy, no significant differences were observed in laboratory tests between the two groups, except for the triglyceride level (188.86 ± 90.66 vs. 146.23 ± 70.38, p-value=0.04). However, hepatic fibroscans were noticeably ameliorated in the treatment group compared to the control (p-value &lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We observed no significant amelioration in the majority of biochemical indices of the patients, but patterns of NAFLD in fibroscans were considerably improved. Although we cannot entirely attribute this finding to our therapy with silymarin, curcumin, and garlic, a healthy lifestyle combined with these supplements can help improve the state of NAFLD. Further studies with larger sample size and different doses are recommended.</p> Zahra Ataee Maryam Vahabzadeh Seyedeh Shabnam Mazloumi Kiapey Hamid Reza Rahimi Hooman Mosanan Mozaffari Maliheh Ziaee * Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-07-12 2022-07-12 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v6i2.917 A Traditional Chinese Herbal Hand Sanitizer for COVID-19 http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/906 <p>None. Letter to the Editor.</p> Siukan Law* Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-07-12 2022-07-12 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i2.906 The Effect of Pretreatment with the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ginger on the Modulation of Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonist and Antagonist Impacts on Pain Sensitivity in Male Rats http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/902 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract increased dopamine concentration in various brain areas. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how ginger extract can affect the efficiency of D2 receptor agonist (bromocriptine) and antagonist (chlorpromazine) on pain sensitivity in rats.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Forty-eight adult male rats in standard conditions divided into eight groups, i.e. the control, the ginger sham1, sham2, ginger, bromocriptine 10 or 30 µM + ginger, and chlorpromazine 20 or 40 µM + ginger. The cannulation of the lateral ventricle was conducted unilaterally by the stereotaxic procedure. A pain sensitivity test was carried out in all the groups by formalin test on the 16<sup>th</sup> day.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of this study indicated that ginger could remarkablly (P&lt;0.01) reduce pain sensitivity in all stages of the formalin test. As the data revealed, bromocriptine 10 or 30 µg/rat and chlorpromazine 20 or 40 µg/rat significantly (P&lt;0.01) decreased the pain sensitivity in all phases of the formalin test in comparison with the control and sham groups. However, chlorpromazine 20 or 40 µg/rat noticeably (P&lt;0.01) increased the pain sensitivity when compared to ginger and bromocriptine groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the results of the present study, ginger mimics the analgesic effect of bromocriptine. Moreover, ginger has attenuated the hyperalgesic effect of chlorpromazine. It seems that ginger has a synergistic effect with the analgesic effect of the dopamine D2 receptor.</p> Mohammad Hossein Faraji Mahnaz Taherianfard * Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-07-11 2022-07-11 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v6i3.902