Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj <p><strong>ISSN: 2538-2144 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal </strong>is a <strong>free of charge</strong>, <strong>open access</strong>, quarterly <strong>peer-reviewed journal</strong> which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of&nbsp;<strong>herbal medicines.</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal is supported and published by <strong><em><a href="http://en.lums.ac.ir">Lorestan University of Medical Sciences</a>, Khorramabad, Iran</em></strong></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p><p><span>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</span> <span>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license <span>(</span><span dir="RTL"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span dir="LTR">CC-BY)</span></span></span></span></a></span><span>.</span> However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.</span></p> bahramrasoulian@gmail.com (Dr. Bahram Rasoulian) kheirandish81@yahoo.com (Dr. Farnaz Kheirandish) Tue, 12 Sep 2023 16:03:51 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Effects of Zataria Multiflora, Mentha Longifolia, and Origanum Vulgare Plant Essential Oils on the Inhibition of Candida Albicans http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1023 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> In recent years, yeast, particularly Candida species, has been the most common fungus separated from human infections. In this research, effects of essential oils of some plants on the clinical strains of <em>Candida albicans</em> were examined.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Forty clinical strains of Candida were obtained from the Infectious Diseases Research Center of Arak University of Medical Sciences. After preparing the essential oils of <em>Zataria multiflora, Mentha longifolia,</em> and <em>Origanum vulgare</em>, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oils against <em>Candida albicans</em> strains was determined. the Morphological changes at different times were investigated using the negative staining method and a transmission electron microscope (TEM).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the disc diffusion test indicated that the highest resistance rates in 0.625 mg/ml of <em>O</em><em>.</em><em> vulgare</em>, <em>M</em><em>.</em><em> longifolia</em>, and <em>Z</em><em>.</em><em> multiflora</em> essential oils were 31(77.5%), 15(37.5%), and 13(32.5%), respectively. The lowest MIC was related to <em>Z</em><em>.</em><em> Multiflora</em> essential oil (0.625 mg/ml). After treatment with the essential oils, the yeasts immediately decreased at zero hour. This decrease became more noticeable with the passage of time and reached the minimum number after 24 hours. Moreover, electron microscope images showed changes in the morphology of the yeasts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Zataria multiflora, Mentha longifolia, </em>and<em> Origanum vulgare</em> essential oils, particularly <em>Zataria multiflora</em>, had antimicrobial effects against <em>Candida albicans</em> that were isolated to be studied. Thus, <em>Zataria multiflora</em> essential oil can be used as an anti-candida agent in the preparation of antifungal compounds</p> pegah shakib, Roya Malek Hossrini, Farbod Teymouri, Mohammad Arjomandzadegan, Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari* Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1023 Sun, 27 Aug 2023 06:40:45 +0000 The Antiviral Potential of Medicinal Plants in Treating Viral Infections http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/960 <p>Recently, there has been remarkable progress in the field of antiviral herbal therapy owing to increasing concerns about the development of drug resistance and limited advances in the field of antiviral drug discovery. In almost all countries, medicinal plants have been widely used throughout history for the treatment of diseases and infections as traditional healing remedies due to their broad therapeutic spectrum and minimal or no side effects. As synthetic antiviral drugs are not available against most of the viral agents, hence all possible efforts have been focused on the search for new drugs and complementary alternative medicines from different herbal formulations. Despite their long history of use, the research and scientific evidence regarding the use of medicinal plants and natural products as prophylactics, therapeutics, and their health multiple beneficial applications have only gained momentum in the past few decades. Many scientific studies have been undertaken, which range from the separation of active substances to the comprehension of the therapeutic mechanisms of antiviral herbs, their potent applications in the neutralization of viral pathogens and clinical trials. Consequently, hundreds of herbs and plant metabolites have been screened, identified, and tested for their antiviral activities; fortunately, some have shown significant medicinal activity in the preventing or ameliorating of various viral diseases such as: Rabies, Influenza types A, B and C, Hepatitis B and C in both preclinical and clinical studies.</p> Amin Jaydari*, Elahe Sobhani, Shahriyar Mehrabi Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/960 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 21:55:24 +0000 An Investigation of the Protective Effects of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Persian Yellow Rose (Rosa foetida Herrm.) on Rats with Parkinson's Disease Induced by 6-Hydroxydopamine http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/964 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> This study was carried out to investigate the protective impacts of <em>Rosa foetida </em>extract on Parkinson's disease.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Seventy rats were divided into 7 groups of 10, including a sham group, the Parkinsonian group (received 6OHDA), pretreatment and post-treatment groups with Persian yellow rose extract (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), and the positive control (L-DOPA). Animal behavior was evaluated using behavioral tests, including muscle stiffness test, rotarod, and elevated body swing test (EBST). The data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The frequency of turning to the right in the EBST test, the muscle stiffness score, and the right as well as left-hand scores in the muscle stiffness test were significantly higher in the Parkinsonian group than in the sham group (P&lt;0.05). The frequency of turning to the right in the post-treatment group with Persian yellow rose extract in doses 150 and 300 mg/kg and in pre-treatment with Persian yellow rose extract in dose 300 was significantly lower than that of the Parkinsonian group (P&lt;0.05). The score of the left and right hand in the pre-treatment group of Persian yellow rose extract at a dose of 300 significantly decreased compared with the Parkinsonian group (P&lt;0.05). The time to maintain balance in the rotarod test was significantly reduced in the Parkinsonian group compared with the sham, and post-treatment as well as pre-treatment groups with different doses of Persian yellow rose extract (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the results of this study, it can be said that the Persian yellow rose extract protects nerve cells against oxidative damage caused by 6-hydroxydopamine and improves motor symptoms and balance disorders caused by Parkinson's disease.</p> Nahid Jivad*, Zahra Forouzandeh Shahraki, Amir Mahdi Naseri Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/964 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 21:48:35 +0000 An Evaluation of Anti-Microbial Properties of Gelatin and Collagen Films Enriched by Aloe Vera and Henna to Build an Organic Band Aid http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1000 <p>Today, the idea of ​​using biodegradable polymers which can naturally replace skin shortly before skin repair while also inhibiting the growth of bacteria causing wound infection is of great interest. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of making degradable films using natural compounds, including chicken gelatin and collagen, henna plant extract, and aloe vera gel.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Aloe vera gel and ethanolic extract of the henna plant were prepared and their antioxidants were studied by DPPH (Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl) free radical-scavenging assay. Then, the antimicrobial properties of henna extract and aloe vera gel were evaluated against <em>Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and<em> Candida albicans</em> using the disk diffusion method along with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests. To prepare the films, the gelatin and collagen extracted from chicken, along with the ethanolic extract of henna and aloe vera gel, was used. Subsequently, the physicochemical and mechanical properties (elasticity, dissolution potency, and moisture level and microscopy investigation) of the films as well as the antimicrobial properties of films against these microbes were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed that the anti-microbial effects of henna extract and aloe vera gel alone and in combination with gelatin/collagen matrix varied and had different effects on the tested microbes. Moreover, aloe vera showed stronger antioxidant properties than henna.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> When synthesizing gelatin/collagen-based biopolymers, plant compounds and extracts can be used to enhance the antioxidant and antibacterial properties and apply organic band aids to help heal wounds and prevent wound infections.</p> Bayan Khoshkalam*, Ramin Manaffar, Nooshin Sohrabi, Nabi Khaliliaqdam Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/1000 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 21:43:24 +0000 Effects of the Topical Application of Lavandula Officinalis L. Essential Oil on Reducing the Severity of Eczema Symptoms: A Randomized Clinical Trial http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/936 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> <em>Lavandula Officinalis L. </em>essential oil (L.O) has different effects such as anti-inflammatory and soothing effects on skin diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the the effect of L.O on the severity of eczema.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This research was conducted as an open-label, randomized clinical trial. The patients who were enrolled to participate in the present study were randomly divided into five groups. In groups A, B, and C, 15 patients in each group received lavender essential oil cream at a dose of 3%, 5%, and 8%, respectively. In groups D and E, 15 patients in each group received 1% topical hydrocortisone and cream base, respectively. All the patients used the cream twice a day for 14 days. Baseline characteristics of the enrolled subjects and illness severity were recorded at the baseline and during the 7th as well as 14th days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Generalized estimating equations (GEE) method showed that the interaction of the experimental group and time factor on the severity of eczema was significant (P = 0.011). Moreover, the relative chance of higher eczema severity in experimental groups was different, and it was a function of time. The relative chance of any increase in the severity of eczema in groups A, B, C compared with group E on the 7<sup>th</sup> day of treatment was reduced by about 9.7%, 34.7%, and 73.9%, respectivelyt; while on the 14<sup>th</sup> day of treatment, it decreased by about 79.2%, 82.4%, and 97.7%, respectively. The lavender oil significantly reduced the severity of eczema at the 7<sup>th</sup> and end of the 14<sup>th</sup> day (P ≤ 0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lavender has dose-dependently beneficial effects on the treatment of eczema.</p> Marzieh Rashidipour, Mojgan Zarei Venovel, Forouzan Ahmadpour*, Farzad Ebrahimzadeh, Hossein Matoorian Pour, Samaneh Hadavand, Asma Alekasir Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/936 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 21:36:44 +0000 Detection of Aflatoxins in Peanut Samples Using HPLC in Isfahan, Iran http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/933 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium are fungi commonly found in farm produce, including peanuts, that can produce mycotoxins such as Aflatoxin. Aflatoxins are toxic byproducts of fungal metabolism that can cause cancer. They are found in various food items. This study aimed to identify Aflatoxins in peanut specimens using HPLC in Isfahan, Iran.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> One hundred fifty 300-gram peanut samples were collected from markets in Isfahan province, Iran, and cultivated on Sabouraud glucose agar (SDA). The fungi were classified using the standard slide culture technique, and aflatoxin analysis was performed using the HPLC approach.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The most prevalent isolated fungi among the 150 peanut specimens were Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhodotorula. The occurrence of total aflatoxin, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 were 85%, 85%, 74%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. 5% of peanut samples exceeded the maximum permissible limits (5 and 15 µg/kg) for AFB1 and total aflatoxins, respectively, as established by European Union guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results suggest that peanuts are an appropriate medium for various fungal growth and mycotoxin formation, emphasizing the significance of testing peanuts for aflatoxin and fungal contamination before distributing them to the general public.</p> pegah shakib*, Mahboobeh Madani*, Arezoo Azarm, Mohammadali Zia, Reza Mohajer Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/933 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 21:31:22 +0000 Targeting and Inhibiting Plasmodium berghei Growth in Balb/c Mice Using Kojic Acid-Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Kojic Acid-Nanostructured Lipid Carriers http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/991 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Malaria is a life-threatening infection in the world. The emergence of strains of <em>Plasmodium</em> species that are resistant to anti-parasitic drugs, and the lack of licensed high-performance malaria vaccines have raised serious concerns worldwide. In recent years, new treatment strategies such as nanoformulations have been suggested as effective drug delivery systems to enhance the therapeutic efficiency of various drugs.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this study, kojic acid-solid lipid nanoparticles (KA-SLNs) and kojic acid-nanostructured lipid carriers (KA-NLCs) were synthesized using high-speed homogenization and ultra-probe sonication methods to improve their antiplasmodial activities. The obtained nanoformulations were evaluated against the <em>Plasmodium berghei</em> malaria parasite in mice. Anti-plasmodium activities and cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles were assed. Furthermore, the spleen and liver biochemical analyses of the subjected mice were evaluated for each group of mice in comparison with the control group. Fifty percent effective dose (ED50) was calculated as well. Moreover,&nbsp;ex vivo human red blood cells (RBCs) hemolysis was assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Kojic acid solution was significantly effective in all concentrations on the seventh day (D7) and the tenth day (D10) (P. value &lt;0.05). The toxicity test revealed no toxic impact on the subjects. ED50 was obtained at 150 mg/kg concentration for KA-NLCs and 400 mg/kg concentration for KA-SLNs on D10. The results of the evaluation of KA nanoformulations and KA solution on RBCs indicated that KA nanoformulations could reduce the lysis of RBCs.&nbsp; These results also showed that the lysis of RBCs increased with raising drug concentration in KA nanoformulations, and KA-NLCs (100 mg/kg) gave the least lysis. KA nanoformulations (especially KA-NLCs) and KA solution significantly reduced parasite growth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These results revealed that the KA solution was safe and had no side effects on the subjects in the range of evaluated concentrations. Moreover, the results of this study showed that </p> Mehdi Nateghpour*, Aref Faryabi, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi*, Khadijeh Khezri, Bahman Rahimi-Esboei, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Nader Shahrokhi, Amir Amani, Fatemeh Bayat Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/991 Wed, 23 Aug 2023 21:25:57 +0000 In vitro Screening of Glutathione- S -Transferase Inhibition by Different Extracts of Verbascum sinuatum http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/901 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The concern toward using herbs as enzyme inhibitors such as glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs) may result in the improvement of proliferative diseases. Moreover, it may overcome the problem of multidrug resistance tumors. Based on that, this experiment was conducted to detect the impact of using aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts from <em>Verbascum sinuatum</em> L. (Scrophulariaceae) that grow wild in Palestine as enzymatic inhibitors.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The impacts of these three extracts at four studied concentrations (250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/mL) on the activity of purified hepatic glutathione-s-transferases were estimated spectrophotometrically by using-chloro-2,4-dinitro-benzene (CDNB) as substrate.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the present research indicated that all the three prepared extracts of<em> V. sinuatum</em> could inhibit the activity of GSTs at all examined concentrations. Moreover, according to the results, the alcoholic extracts from the studied plant species were more influential in the activity of GSTs than the aqueous ones. However, minor inhibitory variations were observed between methanol and ethanol extracts. It is notable that all the studied extracts manifested inhibitory effects in a dose-dependent manner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study emphasized the possibility of utilizing <em>V. sinuatum</em> extracts in pharmaceutical industry of new medications to fight drug resistant tumors in general and GST-induced tumors in particular.</p> Lubna Abdallah*, Aseel Abu Hardan Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/901 Tue, 22 Aug 2023 09:49:04 +0000 An Investigation of the Cytotoxicity Effect of the Ziziphus jujuba L., Ribes khorasanicum, Crocus sativus Petal, and Centella asiatica Extracts on the NIH/3T3 Cell Line http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/986 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Medicinal plants are used for treating different diseases in humans. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>Ziziphus jujuba&nbsp;L., Ribes khorasanicum, Crocus sativus </em>petal<em>, </em>and<em> Centella asiatica</em> on the cell viability and morphology of embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line in mice.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this analytic cross-sectional study, we prepared the hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>Ziziphus jujuba&nbsp;L., Ribes khorasanicum, Crocus sativus </em>petal<em>, </em>and<em> Centella asiatica</em> to treat NIH/3T3 cell line using various concentrations of these extracts (78.1, 156.5, 312.5, 625, 1250, 2500, and 5000 μg/ml). Subsequently, we investigated cell viability with MTT assay and morphological changes using an inverted light microscope after 24h and 48 h.&nbsp; One-way analysis of variance was performed to compare the groups using SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of this study indicated that the hydroalcoholic extracts of the <em>Ziziphus jujuba&nbsp;L. </em>and<em> Ribes khorasanicum</em> could induce less toxicity and morphological change in the NIH/3T3 cells (<em>P</em>&lt;0.001). NIH/3T3 cells exposed to several concentrations of <em>Crocus sativus</em> petal and <em>Centella asiatica</em> hydroalcoholic extracts reduced cell viability and exhibited morphological changes (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01) such as decreased number of live cells, and lost their spindle-like shape compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our findings showed that none of the <em>Crocus sativus</em> petal,<em> Centella asiatica,</em> <em>Ziziphus jujuba&nbsp;L. </em>and<em> Ribes khorasanicum</em> extracts had any cytotoxicity effects on NIH/3T3 cell line due to high IC50, although <em>Ziziphus jujuba&nbsp;L. </em>and<em> Ribes khorasanicum</em> exhibited greater degrees of safety than <em>Crocus sativus</em> petal and <em>Centella asiatica</em>.</p> Samira Shahraki, Fatemeh Shahbeiki, Reza Mohebbati* Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/986 Mon, 05 Jun 2023 20:49:17 +0000 A Comparison of Antibacterial Effects of Licorice Root Ethanolic Extract, Chlorhexidine, and Doxycycline on Fusobacterium nucleatum: An in Vitro Study http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/999 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Antibiotics and mouthwashes which are used to prevent and treat periodontal diseases have side effects such as antibiotic resistance, mouth burning, and xerostomia. With the advancement of technology, plants have been considered as alternative antibacterial agents. Licorice plant with different species has been used in traditional medicine to treat gastritis and respiratory diseases. Considering the properties of licorice in traditional medicine, this study aimed to investigate the antibacterial properties of licorice root extract with different concentrations compared with Chlorhexidine mouthwash and Doxycycline antibiotic on <em>Fusobacterium nucleatum</em> in vitro.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> After the preparation of 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspension, the plant and its ethanolic extract, and six extract dilutions were also prepared. Agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution tests were carried out against<em> Fusobacterium nucleatum</em> ATCC 2558. The antibacterial effect of Chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.2% and Doxycycline 100 mg antibiotic were also determined to be compared with licorice extract. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests in spss26 software at a significance level of 5%.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All the six concentrations had significant antibacterial effects compared with each other, chlorhexidine and doxycycline (P-value&lt;0.05). The inhibitory concentrations of extract, MIC50, MIC70, and, MIC90 were related to 12/5, 50, and 200 mg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory percentages of chlorhexidine and doxycycline were 67.6% and 88.7%, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Licorice ethanolic extract exhibited an excellent antimicrobial effect (MIC=6.25mg/ml), so that in concentrations higher than 25, a greater antimicrobial effect was observed than in chlorhexidine (P&lt;0.05).</p> Mohammadreza Tabatabaeian, Vahid Esfahanian*, Arezoo Tahmourespour Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/999 Fri, 19 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000