Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj <p><strong>ISSN: 2538-2144 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal </strong>is a <strong>free of charge</strong>, <strong>open access</strong>, quarterly <strong>peer-reviewed journal</strong> which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of&nbsp;<strong>herbal medicines.</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal is supported and published by <strong><em><a href="http://en.lums.ac.ir">Lorestan University of Medical Sciences</a>, Khorramabad, Iran</em></strong></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p><p><span>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</span> <span>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license <span>(</span><span dir="RTL"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span dir="LTR">CC-BY)</span></span></span></span></a></span><span>.</span> However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.</span></p> bahramrasoulian@gmail.com (Dr. Bahram Rasoulian) kheirandish81@yahoo.com (Dr. Farnaz Kheirandish) Tue, 17 May 2022 19:01:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Amelioration of Colitis from Nature and its Immunological Implications: Current and Future Perspectives http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/893 <p>Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition of the intestine. IBD is characterized by abdominal pains, diarrhea, fever, chills, cramps, and bloating and if not properly managed, it can be life-threatening. Interestingly, medicinal plants have been identified and validated to attenuate this condition due to the presence of natural products using different animal models via aryl hydrocarbon receptor and Adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. This review briefly discusses some of the natural products and medicinal plants, that can be used and developed as therapeutics for IBD treatment coupled with their immunological consequences. It recommends the need to use computational approaches to identify novel targets as well as the synthesis of structural analogs of endogenous ligands and natural products that are modulators of the identified and novel molecular targets coupled with the profiling of their biological activities and side effects.</p> Emmanuel Oluwaseun Adediran, Prabha S. Awale, Udai P. Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/893 Tue, 17 May 2022 18:58:15 +0000 Evaluation of total content phenolic, flavonoid and tannin of herbs used in treatment of ailments in Kisii and Nyamira Counties region, Kenya. http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/874 <p><strong>B</strong><strong>a</strong><strong>ckground and Aim: </strong>Herbs <em>Carissa spinarum, Physalis minima </em>and<em> Toddalia</em><em> asiati</em> are used in the treatments of certain ailments in Kisii and Nyamira Counties region, Kenya but few studies have been conducted on the quality, efficacy and safety of using various parts of these herbs for these treatments. The principal aim of the present study was to standardize the three herbs of interest. This research was carried out to evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents in the methanolic extract of whole plant<em> Physalis minima</em>, and leaves as wells roots of <em>Carissa spinarum </em>and<em> Toddalia</em><em> asiatica</em>.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Each part of the herb was extracted by soaking in methanol/dichloromethane in ratio 1:1 for seven days. Subsequently, it was filtered and concentrated by rotary vapor, and then the solvent allowed to escape and be solidified. The same process was repeated three times in all samples. Determination of the total phenolic content (mgGAE/g) was done by Folin-Ciocalteu on 765 nm using a spectrophotometer.The total flavonoid content (mgQE/g) was determined by aluminium chloride colorimetric assay on 415 nm. Total tannin content (mgCE/g) was analyzed by modified vanillin assay.</p> <p><strong>Re</strong><strong>sults: </strong>The highest and lowest levels of total phenolic content were observed in the roots of <em>Toddalia</em><em> asiatica </em>and <em>Carissa spinarum </em>respectively. The highest and lowest levels of total flavonoid content were observed in <em>Physalis minima</em> and in the root of <em>Carissa</em><em> spinarum </em>respectively<em>. </em>The highest and lowest levels of total tannin content were observed in the leaf extract of <em>Toddalia</em><em> asiatica </em>and root extract of<em> Carissa spinarum </em>respectively<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The highest total phenolic content was observed in the root extract of <em>Toddalia</em><em> asiatica</em>.The highest total flavonoid content was observed in the extract of whole plant <em>Physalis</em><em> minima</em>, while the highest total tannin content was observed in the leaf extract of <em>Toddalia</em><em> asiatica</em>.</p> Moses A. Guto Maobe *, Leonard Gitu, Erastus Gatebe Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/874 Thu, 24 Mar 2022 18:49:47 +0000 Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Cissus quadrangularis L. http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/895 <p>Traditional system of medicine practiced since time immemorial has emerged as an alternative for modern medicine as it is economical, nature-based and without side effects. Medicinal plant <em>Cissus quadrangularis</em> L. has been used in the Indian system of traditional medicine due to its easier propagation and availability. The phytochemical composition of the plant mainly consists of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, benzenoids, phenols, and total protein. The stem is the most important part of the plant with various therapeutic properties. The plant exhibits anti-arthritis, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-microbial, anti-hemorrhoidal, anthelmintic, and other pharmacological properties. The plant has traditionally been used in the treatment of broken bones, rheumatic pains, bowel infections, burns, wounds, eye disorders, menstrual disorders, boils, asthma, gastritis, piles hemorrhoids, anemia, and indigestion. This systematic review documented the phytochemical composition of various plant parts along with evaluating research articles for designing the pharmacological application of the plant and its use in drug industries.</p> Sandeep Pandey *, Shikha Parmar, Monika Shukla Shukla, Varsha Sharma Sharma, Akansha Dwivedi, Anamika Pandey, Monika Mishra Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/895 Tue, 22 Mar 2022 18:46:51 +0000 The Therapeutic Potential of Artemisia amygdalina Decne, An Endemic Plant Species from Kashmir Himalaya: A Review http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/852 <p>The genus <em>Artemisia</em> occupies an important place in the rich plant biodiversity of Kashmir Himalayas.&nbsp; Being endemic to Kashmir Himalaya, <em>Artemisia amygdalina</em> is used as medicine to treat various diseases. This plant species has been used in folk medicine in the treatment of a number of diseases, including epilepsy, piles, nervous disorders, cough, cold, fever, and pain since ages. Significant progress has been made in phytochemical and biological investigations of <em>Artemisia</em> during the past few years. However, a detailed and critical review of <em>A. amygdalina</em>, which is an important endemic medicinal plant species, is not available. It is in this backdrop that a comprehensive and critical review of this plant species has been compiled. Relevant literature regarding <em>Artemisia amygdalina</em> was retrieved from databases like Web of Science, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Springer, PubMed, SciFinder, and Science Direct. Moreover, we collected data from classic books, unpublished materials and papers on this plant species. <em>Artemisia amygdalina</em> are widely utilized in the treatment of illnesses such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. This species is rich in bioactive compounds like alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, p-cymene, 1, 8-cineole, phenolics, tannins (polyphenolics), steroids, etc. These secondary metabolites attribute remedial properties to the species. This review article was written to provide readers with up-to-date information on the active components, pharmacology, traditional uses, trade and difficulties in the conservation and sustainable use of this significant plant species.</p> Summia Rehman, Aijaz Hassan Ganie *, Zafar A Reshi Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/852 Fri, 04 Mar 2022 15:52:11 +0000 A Comparison of Chitosan Gel and St. John’s Wort Oil in Second-Degree Burns: An Experimental Study http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/858 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) and chitosan are materials that are abundant in nature with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antibiotic properties. The present study aimed to examine the effects of these two materials on burn injuries.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Twenty-one rats were divided into three groups, and burn injuries were experimentally created. Macroscopic healing of the wounds was evaluated by drawing the wound borders on transparent acetates once a week. At the end of four weeks, all the animals were sacrificed, and histopathological examinations were performed. The intact dorsum skin of the animals killed was excised to create the control group. A total of four groups were created, i.e. control, saline, St. John’s Wort Oil (SJWO), and chitosan gel group, respectively. The results were compared statistically.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> At the end of the third week, the maximum reduction was observed in the SJWO group in the macroscopic examination (p&lt;0.05). In histopathological examinations, dermal inflammation (Chi-square test, p&lt;0.05) and epidermis thickness (Mann-Whitney U, p&lt;0.05) were found to have the highest levels in the chitosan group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> All the preparations used in this study to treat burn injuries were effective, and the wounds improved compared to the initial state. SJWO was determined to provide the best healing of the burns. Long-term use of chitosan gel did not positively affect, with both macroscopic and histopathological findings showing that it delayed the healing of wounds compared to saline and SJWO.</p> Ahmet Gökhan Güler *, Ahmet Burak Doğan, Ali Erdal Karakaya, Abdulkadir Yasir Bahar, Fatih Mehmet Yazar Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/858 Fri, 04 Mar 2022 15:09:29 +0000 Can Edible Mushrooms with Antiviral Properties be Used for COVID-19 Treatment? http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/878 <p>Total 219 countries and territories globally suffering from the recent viral disease covid 19 that is now in its second wave with more severity, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2). In the present situation as death and number of affected person increases due to covid 19, following all guidelines like-as wearing mask, maintain physical distancing, washing of hands with soap and detergents seems to be the most effective but along with that boosting our health immunity by consuming Edible mushroom with antiviral properties can be the game changer. Thus further investigation and more laboratory research works to assess potential mushrooms could possibly help to fight against covid 19 infections in the upcoming days.</p> Pallab Chakraborty * Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/878 Fri, 04 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Ethno-Botanical Survey of Plants Used in Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment: A Case Study of Gusau in Nigeria http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/868 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease, is known as the most prevalent type of polyarticular inflammatory arthritis with a variety of features, including continual synovial inflammation, bony erosions, and progressive destruction with varying physical disability and degrees of pains<em>. </em>The aim of this study is to provide the knowledge about plants used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment by people residing in Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The survey was carried out using an electronic questionnaire to obtain information about plants used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The plants that were used, part of the plant(s), mode of preparation, and transferability of knowledge were documented.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> About 12 plant species, i.e.<em> Allium sativum</em> Linn<em>., Curcuma longa</em> Linn.<em>, Xylopia aethiopica</em> (Dunal) A. Rich.<em>, Zingiber officinale</em> Roscoe.<em>, Telfairia occidentalis</em> Hook.f.<em>, Moringa oleifera</em> Lam.<em>, Eleusine indica</em> (L.) Gaertn.<em>, Vernonia amygdalina </em>Del.<em>, Momordica charantia</em> Linn.<em>, Persea americana</em> Mill.<em>, Vitellaria paradoxa</em> C.F.Gaertn.<em>, </em>and<em> Nigella sativa</em> Linn. were reported in a different frequency, with 16.83% of the respondents reporting herbal mixtures without a knowledge source of the plants. The plant parts used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment were roots, leaves, bulbs, fruits, and stems prepared in different forms like grinding, decoction, infusion, herbal mixture, and blending.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is a great level of transfer of these medicinal plants' knowledge to friends and family members. This ethnobotanical survey has shown these plants' local uses in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.</p> Ayodeji Oluwatobi Ojetunde, Geoffrey Timothy Tongshuwar, Ayandunmola Folake Oyegoke, Toyese Oyegoke Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/868 Wed, 15 Dec 2021 08:28:57 +0000 An Investigation on the Extraction of Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Properties of Domestic Plants Found in Southern India http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/814 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The uses of natural sources for treating various ailments have received global attraction in recent years. Flavonoids, phenolics, and alkaloid compounds present in plants satiate free radicals and scavenge oxygen. Extraction of these substances is carried out using solvents, and it varies with respect to the plant species individually. The present work was carried out to determine the best solvent for extraction. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to identify the property and amount of the phytochemicals present in each plant.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Plant samples were collected and extracted using maceration and the Soxhlet extraction method. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed using conventional methods. Antimicrobial and antibacterial studies were performed using zone of inhibition studies based on <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">the</span> agar gel diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the plants samples taken for the study, the phenolic content was found to be the best one using Soxhlet methanolic leaf extracts of <em>Acalypha indica</em> (4.80mg/ml), methanolic crude extract of <em>Lawsome inermis</em> (4.7mg/ml), soxhlet water extract of <em>Acalypha indica</em> (4.35mg/ml), Soxhlet methanolic extract of <em>Lawsome inermis</em> (4.3mg/ml) and crude ethanolic extract of <em>Lawsome inermis</em> (4.0mg/ml). Crude and soxhlet ethanolic extracts of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, saponins, and steroids. Determination of vitamin C revealed that the crude methanolic extract of <em>Murraya koenigii</em> contains a higher level of vitamin C(3.7 mg/ml) content compared to the other plants and solvents used. Among the microorganism’s tested, gram-negative bacteria, <em>Proteus mirabilis </em>and <em>Enterobacter fecalis</em> were found more sensitive to the plant extracts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The crude methanolic extract of <em>Murraya koneigii</em> has revealed the presence of all phytochemicals except tannins. The methanolic crude extract of <em>Murraya koenigii</em> was found to have a high level of Vitamin C. Plant extracts increase the antimicrobial property which was revealed in qualitative and quantitative analysis.</p> K V Radha, Panchaksharam Supritha Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/814 Thu, 25 Nov 2021 13:06:44 +0000 Dioscorides on Pistacia lentiscus L. and Marrubium vulgare L. through pharmacological properties of today. http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/850 John Pouris, Frantzeska Stylianou Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/850 Thu, 25 Nov 2021 12:57:57 +0000 Effect of Saffron on serum zinc and copper in patients with metabolic syndrome http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/818 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing globally. Previous studies have shown that saffron has anti-oxidative effects. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are important trace elements involved in antioxidant protection. We aimed to investigate the effects of saffron supplements on serum levels of Cu, Zn and SOD in subjects with MetS.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: This randomized double-blind clinical trial comprised 70 subjects with MetS, aged18-75 years, who referred to the Nutrition Clinic in Ghaem Hospital. They were divided into 2 groups: 1- saffron group: taking a capsule of saffron 100 mg/kg/day (50 mg twice a day) (n=35); 2- placebo group: taking a capsule of placebo (twice a day) (n=35), for a period of 12 weeks. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc and copper levels in all subjects. Serum SOD activity determined using pyrogallol indirect spectrophotometric assay. SPSS version 18 was used for all the statistical analysis.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Fifty-six subjects completed the study. There were no significant differences in baseline features between the saffron and placebo groups (p&gt; 0.05). The changes in serum zinc levels at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention were significant between the saffron and placebo groups (p=0.041), (Table 2). While, there were no significant differences changes in serum copper, ZN/Cu and SOD1 between 2 study groups before and after the intervention.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p><p>The results of current study showed that saffron supplementation for a period of 12 weeks can increase serum Zn level in patients with MetS.</p> Maryam Saberi-Karimian, Susan Darroudi, Fatemeh Shaghi, Shima Tavallaei, Hamide Safarian, Gordon A. Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Tayyebeh Kermany, Maryam Shemshian Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal Medicines Journal http://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/818 Fri, 19 Nov 2021 16:21:31 +0000