Antioxidant Properties of Some Traditional Iranian Edible Fruits Growing Wild in Lorestan Province in the Western Iran
AbstractBackground and Aim: This study aimed to determine the antioxidant properties of Ziziphus nummularia (ZN), Crataegus spp (CS) (red), Crataegus spp (CS) (yellow), and Berberis integerrima (BI) which grow in the Western Iran.Materials and Methods: The free radical scavenging ability, total antioxidant capacity, and phenol as well as flavonoid contents were measured using the 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdate, Folin-Ciocalteu, and Zishen methods, respectively.Results: The total antioxidant capacities of ZN, CS (red), CS (yellow), and BI were 0.93±1.15, 1.01±1.14, 1.42±3, and 3.36±4.84 (µmol ascorbic acid/gram of dry extract), respectively. The total flavonoid contents of ZN, CS (red), CS (yellow), and BI were 0.46±0.14, 0.98±0.17, 1.25±0.12, and 3.55±1.80 (mg quercetin/gram of dry extract), respectively. The total phenol content of the extracts ranged from 255.96±78.17 (ZN) to 5128.04±501.61 (CS yellow) mg of gallic acid/gram of dry extract. The lowest IC50 value (3892.25±1298.51 µg/ml of extract) was observed in CS (yellow) and the highest case (5571.35±31.06 µg/ ml) belonged to CS (red).Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that all the samples were rich in phenolic and flavonoid contents.
Sharafzadeh S, Alizadeh O. Some medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci. 2012;2(1):134-137.
Kayabaş NP, Tümen G, Polat R. Wild edible plants and their traditional use in the human nutrition in Manyas (Turkey). IJTK. 2018;17(2):299-306.
Mathew NT. Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, and impact of migraine. Clin Cornerstone. 2001;4(3):1-17.
Kuhn MA. Oxygen free radicals and antioxidants. Am J Nurs 2003;103:58-62
Sun C, Wang J, Fang L, Gao X, Tan R. Free radical scavenging
and antioxidant activities of EPS2, an exopolysaccharide produced by
a marine filamentous fungus Keissleriella sp. YS 4108. Life Sci. 2004;75,
Scheibmeir HD, Christensen K, Whitaker SH, Jegaethesan J, Clancy R, Pierce JD. A review of free radicals and antioxidants for critical care nurses. Intensive Crit Care Nurs . 2005;21(1):24-28.
Tachakittirungrod S, Okonogi S, Chowwanapoonpohn S. Study on antioxidant activity of certain plants in Thailand: Mechanism of antioxidant action of guava leaf extract. Food Chem. 2007;103(2):381-388.
Vermerris W, Nicholson R. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds, in: Phenolic compound biochemistry. Springer; Netherlands; 2008: 151-196.
Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 1999;299, 152-178.
Mikkonen TP, Määttä KR, Hukkanen AT, Kokko HI, Törrönen AR, Kärenlampi SO, et al. Flavonol content varies among black currant cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001;49(7):3274-7.
Ahmadvand H, Amiri H, Dalvand H, Bagheri S. Various antioxidant properties of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisa persica. J. Birjand Univ. Med. Sci. 2014;20(4), 416-424. [In Persian]
Duthie G, Crozier A. Plant-derived phenolic antioxidants. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2000;11(1):43-7.
Hassanpour H, Alizadeh S. Evaluation of phenolic compound, antioxidant activities and antioxidant enzymes of barberry genotypes in Iran. Scientia Horticulturae. 2016;200:125-30.
Akbulut M, Çalişir S, Marakoğlu T, Coklar H. Some Physicomechanical and nutritional properties of barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) fruits. J Food Process Eng. 2009;32(4):497-511.
Ardestani SB, Sahari MA, Barzegar M, Abbasi S. Some physicochemical properties of Iranian native barberry fruits (abi and poloei): Berberis integerrima and Berberis vulgaris. J. Food Pharm. Sci. 2013;1(3):60-67.
Özgen M, Saraçoğlu O, Geçer EN. Antioxidant capacity and chemical properties of selected barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) fruits. Hortic Environ Biote. 2012;53(6):447-51.
Rahimi-Madiseh M, Lorigoini Z, Zamani-Gharaghoshi H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Berberis vulgaris: specifications and traditional uses. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2017;20(5):569.
Fallah H, Akbari H, Abolhassani M, Mohammadi A, Gholamhosseinian A. Berberis integerrima ameliorates insulin resistance in high-fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2017;20(10):1093.
Alemardan A, Asadi W, Rezaei M, Tabrizi L, Mohammadi S. Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub. Ind Crop Prod. 2013;50:276-87.
Ahvazi M, Akbarzadeh M, Khalighi-Sigaroodi F, Kohandel A. Introduce some of the medicinal plants species with the most traditional usage in East Mazandaran Region. J Med Plants. 2012;4(44):164-75.
Sharifi F, Poorakbar L. The survey of antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds in fresh and dry hybrid barberry fruits (Berberis integerrima× vulgaris). Cumhuriyet Sci J. 2015;36(3):1609-1617.
Dureja AG, Dhiman K. Free radical scavenging potential and total phenolic and flavonoid content of Ziziphus mauritiana and Ziziphus nummularia fruit extracts. Int. J. Green Pharm. 2012;6(3):187-192.
Tungmunnithum D, Thongboonyou A, Pholboon A, Yangsabai A. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from medicinal plants for pharmaceutical and medical aspects: An overview. Medicines. 2018;5(3):93.
Pal RS, Ariharasivakumar G, Girhepunjhe K, Upadhay A. In-vitro antioxidative activity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds extracted from seeds of Abrus precatorius. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2009;1(2):136-40.
Ramos S. Effects of dietary flavonoids on apoptotic pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2007;18(7):427-42.
Nile SH, Keum YS, Nile AS, Jalde SS, Patel RV. Antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and enzyme inhibitory activity of natural plant flavonoids and their synthesized derivatives. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology. 2018;32(1):e22002.
Yu L, Haley S, Perret J, Harris M, Wilson J, Qian M. Free radical scavenging properties of wheat extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002;50(6):1619-24.
Surveswaran S, Cai YZ, Corke H, Sun M. Systematic evaluation of natural phenolic antioxidants from 133 Indian medicinal plants. Food chem. 2007;102(3):938-53.
Kaur C, Kapoor HC. Anti‐oxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. Int J Food Sci Tech. 2002;37(2):153-61.
Nickavar B, Esbati N. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of three Thymus species. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012;5(3):119-25.
Wong SP, Leong LP, Koh JH. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of selected plants. Food chem. 2006;99(4):775-83.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY). However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.