Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2024-06-15T10:36:38+00:00 Dr. Bahram Rasoulian Open Journal Systems <p><strong>ISSN: 2538-2144 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal </strong>is a <strong>free of charge</strong>, <strong>open access</strong>, quarterly <strong>peer-reviewed journal</strong> which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of&nbsp;<strong>herbal medicines.</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal is supported and published by <strong><em><a href="">Lorestan University of Medical Sciences</a>, Khorramabad, Iran</em></strong></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anti-inflammatory properties of chitosan hydrogel containing Satureja khuzestanica jamzad essential oil on the animal model 2024-06-15T10:36:38+00:00 Marzieh Rashidi Pour Esmaeel Babaeenezhad Samaneh Hadavand Marziesana Elahian Asma Alekasir Mojtaba Khaksarian* <p>Introduction: Nanoparticles as a shell protect bioactive compounds against the environmental conditions of light, heat and oxygen and are also used as a carrier for their targeted delivery. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of chitosan-based nanogel containing <em>Satureja Khuzestanica</em> essential oil (SKE:NP) were studied in comparison with <em>Satureja Khuzestanica</em> essential oil (SKE).</p> <p>Materials and methods: nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method. Anti-inflammatory effects of chitosan-based hydrogel containing Satureja Khuzestanica essential oil, using the paw inflammatory model induced with 2.5% formalin at different times (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 hours after subcutaneous injection) was evaluated.</p> <p>Findings: Nanoparticles with a particle size of 552.8 nm, surface charge of 24.3 and encapsulation efficiency of 30.74% were made. The results of the study showed that SKE:NP (50 mg/kg) reduces inflammation at all times (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 hours after subcutaneous injection). Hind paw was compared diclofenac sodium at times (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 hours after subcutaneous injection) caused a significant decrease the mice had paw inflammation, so that the lowest amount belonged to the group receiving nanogel 50 mg (0.208 g/cm<sup>3</sup>). On the other hand, the amount of paw swelling in the group receiving SKE with a dose of 100 mg/kg two hours after the applied treatment was 0.441 g/cm<sup>3</sup> (P&lt;0.0001).</p> <p>Conclusion: Comparison of the results showed that SKE:NP had more anti-inflammatory effects than SKE, which needs more investigation to explain the exact mechanism of this anti-inflammatory effect.</p> <p>Keywords: Hydrogel, <em>Satureja Khuzestanica</em>, Carvacrol, Chitosan, Formalin test</p> 2024-06-14T15:35:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) A Snapshot on the Development of Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones - An Origin of Nalidixic Acid 2024-05-28T10:20:42+00:00 MANOJ KUMAR SHARMA* Mukesh Kumar Kumawat Anupama Diwan Satish Sardana* Narender Yadav Brijesh Kumar <p>Quinolone antibacterial molecules are the most impactful types of anti-infective, active pharmaceutical ingredients in our never-ending battle against pathogens. Additionally, in contrast to many anti-infective classes, the discoverers published a startlingly small amount of information regarding the origin of the class or the justification for this significant group's first FDA-approved agent, nalidixic acid. With an emphasis on the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR), chemistry, development, adverse effect, and future aspects of this class of antibiotics, this article discusses the discovery, total synthetic methods, pharmacology, clinical applications, and further lead to the new pipeline that produced various large selling and widely used antibiotics.</p> 2024-05-15T20:51:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Herbal Medicines with Chemical Medicines (A Review Article) 2024-05-18T05:13:15+00:00 Hadi Hayati* <p>Herbal medicines and chemical medicines are both commonly used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. However, the cost-effectiveness of these remedies has remained a controversial topic. This review aims to compare the cost-effectiveness of herbal medicines to chemical medicines. Likewise, a comprehensive search was conducted on reputable databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, using relevant keywords. The search methodology encompassed the utilization of specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, namely "herbal medicine," "plant extracts," "phytotherapy," "cost-benefit analysis," "cost savings," "economics, pharmaceutical," "comparative effectiveness research," "therapeutics," "pharmaceutical preparations," and "chemistry, pharmaceutical." The search was restricted to articles published in English within the time span of January 2010 to December 2022.The selection process involved both systematic and subjective approaches, with the most relevant articles identified based on the researcher's expertise. Out of the initial 41 articles, only 9 were found to be eligible for inclusion in the study after a thorough analysis. Thus, only a few studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review. The results indicated that herbal medicines possess the capacity to offer economically viable alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals. However, the diversity in research methodologies and outcomes poses challenges in establishing conclusive findings. It is noteworthy that while herbal medicines are more cost-effective, they may also induce side effects that are contingent upon the specific herb and the individual's health condition. Consequently, the inclusion of adverse effects associated with herbal medicines and plant extracts should be considered when conducting cost-effectiveness analyses.</p> 2024-05-15T20:41:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) The Cardioprotective Effect of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ginger in Renovascular Hypertension Model in Male Rats 2024-05-16T08:57:22+00:00 Vajihe Ghorbanzadeh Aram Nooryazdan Mahtab Zinivand Hossein Beyranvand Azadeh Khalili Mehrnoosh Sedighi Mehdi Birjandi Afshin Nazari* <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Many studies have been conducted worldwide to control blood pressure through herbal medicines. The present study was conducted to investigate ginger's role in the treatment of hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Fifty-four male Wistar rats weighing about 200 to 250 grams were randomly divided into 6 groups (3 groups of ten, and 3 groups of eight rats) for in vivo investigation. The left renal artery was blocked using a non-allergenic stainless-steel clamp to create hypertension. Then, the hydroalcoholic extract of ginger was prepared using distilled water in three doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Oral gavage administration was used for the rats daily for 42 days using the hydroalcoholic extract of ginger. Pulmonary blood pressure was assessed using a cuff sphygmomanometer. Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) and echocardiogram (echo) tests were also performed after the end of the gavage on the 42<sup>nd</sup> day. Moreover, the amount of nitric oxide (NO) in serum samples was measured using the Griess reagent system. After categorizing raw data in Excel, they were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) by SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study, it was observed that ginger could notably decrease blood pressure. This decrease in blood pressure is due to the diuretic effect of the ginger's extract. Consequently, the use of ginger decreases the amount of NO. Furthermore, these data revealed that ginger had no toxic effect on the heart, and using this plant in hypertensive heart disease patients is safe.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Considering the positive effects of ginger in decreasing blood pressure and its non-toxicity for the heart, it is recommended to conduct further specialized studies and clinical trials in this regard.</p> 2024-05-15T20:26:45+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) Physiological and Pharmacological Properties of the Swertia longifolia Boiss Plant and Its Compounds: A Mini Review 2024-05-15T20:22:35+00:00 Ali Zarei* Amirhossein Zarei <p><em>Swertia longifolia</em>, from the Gentianaceae family, grows in various regions of the world and is used in traditional and modern medicine to treat many diseases. The present study aimed to systematically review the physiological-pharmacological effects of this plant and its compounds. To conduct this scoping review, articles published in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ProQest, Cochrane, SID, and Magiran databases were searched, using the keyword <em>S. longifolia</em>, on 18<sup>th</sup> March, 2023 to find relevant articles. <br><em>S. longifolia</em> contains effective compounds such as xanthones, iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, and triterpenoids, which have antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase, and anti-cytotoxic properties. Moreover, the extract of this plant and its compounds have anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic properties and can inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Given the effects of the extract and compounds of <em>S. longifolia</em> in the treatment of various diseases, it seems that clinical trials as well as more advanced studies should be conducted on each of the compounds of the plant which will be considered as new candidates for drug development in the future.</p> 2024-05-15T20:19:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) A Short Review of Allium jesdianum Boiss. & Buhse (Amaryllidaceae) 2024-05-16T08:57:22+00:00 Saeed Mohsenzadeh* <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> <em>Allium</em> <em>jesdianum</em> Boiss. &amp; Buhse (<em>Bon-e-Sorkh</em> or Yazdi onion in Persian) is one of Iran's important endemic and threatened plants belonging to the genus <em>Allium</em>. It grows at high altitudes (1800‒2600 m) in Zagros Mountains, where locals use the bulbs and aerial parts of the plant to treat colds, stomachaches, rheumatic pains, moisture diseases, and kidney problems. There is little research that highlights the chemical composition and biological activities of this medicinal herb. This review outlines the available literature on morphological characteristics, chemical composition, and medicinal uses of the <em>Allium</em> <em>jesdianum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and local databases were searched to find relevant articles published in these databases from 1996 to 2023.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Various climatic and environmental factors can affect the chemical composition of <em>Allium</em> <em>jesdianum</em>. <em>Bon-e-Sorkh</em> possesses several medicinally significant activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-hepatic, anti-nephrotoxicity, anticancer, anti-Alzheimer's, antiplatelet, anti-anxiolytic, nephrolithiasis, protoscolicidal, and anti-toxicity activities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Investigators should complete further research to prove or confirm the results of previous studies reported in this paper by conducting more <em>in vitro</em> studies, and then <em>in vivo</em> as well as clinical studies if the results are promising.</p> 2024-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) The Antifungal Mechanism of Ethanolic and Methanolic Extracts of Teucrium polium Against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis 2024-05-13T17:48:34+00:00 Pegah Shakib* Elham Rezaei Mahboobeh Madani* <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The prevalence of drug resistance in fungi reveals the importance of introducing more efficient and less toxic drugs. Given the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial qualities of Teucrium polium, this study aimed to examine the antifungal mechanism of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of this plant against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> First, the methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium were prepared by the Soxhlet method. The antifungal effects of the extracts were determined by the agar well diffusion and MIC methods. Glucose, sodium, and potassium were identified in the tubes with minimum inhibitory concentration by autoanalyzer and flame photometry methods. Moreover, amino acids were measured by HPLC. Yeast cell wall alterations were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The MICs of the ethanolic extract of Teucrium polium on Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis were 125 and 31.25 mg /ml, respectively, while the MICs of the methanolic extract of the plant against the test organism were 125 and 62.5 mg /ml, respectively. For both types of candida spp., ethanolic and methanolic extracts leaked out less sodium, potassium, glucose, and amino acids than amphotericin B did. Utilizing HPLC analysis, the most amino acids in tubes with the minimum inhibitory concentration of Teucrium polium extracts were glutamine, threonine, and alanine. SEM showed damage in the cell wall of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study showed that Teucrium polium is a strong source of antifungal compounds. This plant has a mode of action similar to that of amphotericin B on the fungal cell membrane, by creating a pore in the membrane. Furthermore, based on the release rate of glucose, sodium, and potassium, the methanolic extract was more efficient than the ethanolic extract.</p> 2024-05-13T17:44:39+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Lavender on Spatial Learning and Memory of Rats Undergoing Pentylenetetrazol Kindling 2024-05-11T20:17:23+00:00 Morteza Mousavi Hassanzadeh Mina Houseini Ali Ghazavi Mohammad Javad Samadi Shima Nourigheimasi Mohammad Reza Palizvan * <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Since memory impairment is one of the most common complaints in patients with epilepsy, development of new ways to improve this dysfunction is of high significance. The present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of the aqueous extract of lavender (AEL) on spatial learning and memory in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Forty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including the sham, control, and experimental groups. Pretreatment of the control(C), sham(S) and experimental (E) groups included a, 13 injections of PTZ (i.p. every other day); b, 20 days of normal saline and AEL in doses 100mg/kg, 200mgkg and 400 mg/kg in S and E groups (i.p. every day) respectively. Finally, the spatial memory and learning were examined by the Morris water maze (4 trials/day in five consecutive days) and the probe test was performed in the 6<sup>th</sup> day.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were no significant differences between the treatment groups with the sham and control groups in terms of time latency, the distance traveled, and movement speed to find the hidden platform(P&gt;0.05). In contrast, 200 mg/kg of AEL remarkably reduced the time latency to find the platform (P=0.02).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The aqueous extract of lavender in moderate doses can lead to improved spatial retrieval memory in kindled rats, although it does not have any effect on spatial learning. Given the effect of AEL on learning and memory, further dose- dependent studies are required to reveal the possible effects of different doses of AEL.</p> 2024-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Characterization of the Antibacterial Compound from Sonneratia apetala Buch. Ham Leaves Collected from the Maharashtra Coast of India 2024-05-11T20:14:04+00:00 Jaimini Sarkar* Chiradeep Sarkar Bhaskar Laxman Jadhav <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> <em>Sonneratia apetala</em> plant has been used in traditional medicine in south Asian countries for treating diarrhea, hepatitis, inflammation, wounds and ulcers. The leaf extract of this plant has shown promising antibacterial activity and it is essential to isolate that antibacterial compound in pure form.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this study, a bioassay-guided isolation and characterization approach was taken to isolate and characterize the antibacterial compound from the <em>S. apetala</em> Buch. Ham leaf. Petroleum ether, acetone and water extracts were prepared and tested against eight human pathogenic bacteria. Water and acetone extracts have shown the inhibition of bacteria but the more promising acetone extract was carried forward for further study. The compound was isolated using the preparative column chromatography method. The isolated compound was studied for antibacterial activity using TLC-bioautography. Further characterization was done using the UV-Vis spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of the present study showed the presence of various valuable phytochemical constituents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The presence of an antibacterial compound highlights the importance of this plant as a source of phytochemicals with medicinal properties.&nbsp; This study indicated that the geographical location of the plant is one of the factors which determines the antibacterial potency of the leaf extract.</p> 2024-02-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) Reproductive-Enhancing Potentials of Methanol Extracts of Sphenostylis stenocarpa Seeds in Male Wistar Rats 2024-05-11T20:16:23+00:00 Collins Ugonna Ugokwe* Flora Ebere Ogbuke Vincent Chikwendu Ejere Joseph Effiong Eyo <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Medicinal plant extracts are still commonly used in folk medicine in developing countries. The seed of African yam bean (<em>Sphenostylis stenocarpa</em>) is a very expensive food legume in Nigeria. Previous studies on <em>S. stenocarpa</em> plant have proven it to be of an outstanding medical significance. Hence, this study investigated the reproductive-enhancing potentials of methanol extracts of <em>Sphenostylis stenocarpa</em> seeds in male Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A total of 144 adult rats were used for the experiment. They were divided into 4 groups (A – D) and replicated trice. Group A served as the normal control, while groups B, C and D received three graded doses (800, 1200 and 1600 mg/kg) of the extracts respectively by oral intubation. The rats' gonad characteristics, sperm parameters and hormonal analyses were determined weekly using standard procedures starting from week 0 (day 1) to week 12. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean weekly gonad characteristics of the male rats in the treatment groups showed overall dose and duration-dependent significant differences compared with the control. The body weights of the male rats significantly reduced (p&lt;0.05), whereas the testes weights, gonad somatic index, sperm count and sperm motility of the rats significantly increased (p&lt;0.05). Testosterone responded to the plant extracts. The testosterone levels of all the treated rats significantly increased.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The methanol seed extracts of <em>S. stenocarpa</em> demonstrated an overall potency to enhance the reproduction in the Wistar rats.</p> 2024-01-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J)