Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj <p><strong>ISSN: 2538-2144 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal </strong>is a <strong>free of charge</strong>, <strong>open access</strong>, quarterly <strong>peer-reviewed journal</strong> which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of&nbsp;<strong>herbal medicines.</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal is supported and published by <strong><em><a href="http://en.lums.ac.ir">Lorestan University of Medical Sciences</a>, Khorramabad, Iran</em></strong></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lorestan University of Medical sciences en-US Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2538-2144 <p>Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p><p><span>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</span> <span>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license <span>(</span><span dir="RTL"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span dir="LTR">CC-BY)</span></span></span></span></a></span><span>.</span> However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.</span></p> The Coagulant Effect of the Medicago sativa L. Hydroalcoholic Extract: An in vivo Study on Mice https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/954 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Herbal medicines are used in the treatment of many diseases, including blood-related disorders. <em>Mediacgo sativa</em>, which is used in traditional medicine to stop bleeding, contains several secondary compounds, is assumed to be effective in primary and secondary blood coagulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of <em>M. sativa</em> extract on blood coagulation system in vivo.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Twenty-four male mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8) as follows: negative control (receiving 0.3 ml of distilled water), positive control (receiving 0.3 ml of tranexamic acid, 1200 mg/kg/day) and the treatment group (receiving 0.3 ml of the hydroalcoholic extract of <em>M. sativa</em>, 300 mg/kg/day)<strong>.</strong> On the 13<sup>th</sup> day of treatment, collection of blood samples from the tail tip for bleeding time (BT), clotting time (CT), and number of platelets was carried out. On the 14<sup>th</sup> day, the blood samples were collected from the heart and prothrombin time (PT), activating the partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) as indicators of coagulation rate that were determined.&nbsp; The GC-MS was also used to determine extract compounds.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results indicated that <em>M. sativa</em> extract had a significant prolonged effect on the aPTT and PT. Furthermore, this extract increased platelet count, though it significantly reduced coagulation time in BT and CT.&nbsp;It was concluded that <em>M. sativa</em> extract could have beneficial effects on the initial blood homeostasis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Given the highly beneficial effect on coagulation and then tranexamic acid, this extract can be recommended as a potential homeostatic remedy after further clinical evaluations.</p> Jafar Vatandoost Zahra Sadat Mashkani Toktam Hajjar Behnam Mahdavi Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i2.954 The Impact of Drying Method on Bioactive Compounds and Microstructure of Jujube Zizyphus Lotus Leaves https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/872 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The leaves of <em>Jujube Zizyphus lotus</em> are widely used as medicine for their health benefits, particularly in China, America and the Middle East. To determine the benefits of Jujube leaves, the leaves were analysed to distinguish certain chemical compounds, examine their antioxidant activity and study their structural morphology.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Conventional drying by ovens is a method of preserving nutritious foods. The drying temperature gradient of 10°C affects certain food compositions. In the case of the Jujube leaf, the increase in temperature revealed an increased extraction. Moreover, an increase in the release of polyphenols analyzed by reactive Folin method (2.5-3 mgEqAG/100g), and a small variation in antioxidant activity tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method of about 80% were registered.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We also noticed a stability of about 3 mg/100g for flavonoids, a very low concentration 0.5 mg/g for total carotenoids, a variation between 12-45 mg/g for phyophytins, and a degradation of chlorophyll a (between 3-18) and chlorophyll b (2-8 mg/g).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the Jujube tree, <em>Zizyphus lotus</em>, is very rich in phenolic compounds, above all Naringin, Furelique, Rutin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol.</p> MOURAD OUHAMMOU Bouchra Nabil Rachida Ouaabou Sara Elgadi Nadia Hidar Yasamine Jaouad Abderrahim Jaouad Mostafa Mahrouz Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i4.872 Protective Effects of Aju Mbaise Extract against Dutasteride-Induced Biochemical and Haematological Changes in Rats https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/961 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> <em>Aju Mbaise</em> is a nutraceutical food supplement taken by nursing mothers within their first three months of delivery due to its health advantages. This study evaluated the protective potentials of <em>Aju Mbaise</em> extract on the renal functions, lipid profile, and haematological indices of Dutasteride-induced rats.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study had sham control, dutasteride control, an extract group that received 1000 <em>mg/kg of Aju</em><em> Mbaise</em> only, and Dutasteride induced groups treated with 500 and 1000 <em>mg/kg of Aju</em><em> Mbaise</em> orally for 28 consecutive days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Dutasteride induction caused a remarkable increase in the serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride ions and a considerable reduction in the serum bicarbonate ions in the Dutasteride control compared to the sham control. The lipid profile indicated a significant increase in the total serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, along with a substantial decline in the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the Dutasteride control relative to the sham control. The haematological parameters, including red blood cell, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and neutrophils, decreased significantly in the Dutasteride control relative to the sham control. In contrast, the Dutasteride control showed a significant increase in the mean corpuscular volume, white blood cell, platelet, and lymphocyte counts compared to the sham control. The treatment of Dutasteride-induced rats with 500 and 1000 <em>mg/kg </em>of<em> Aju Mbaise</em> extract significantly restored the serum urea, creatinine, serum electrolytes, lipid profile, and haematological parameters to normal levels compared to the Dutasteride control. None the rats had any observable alteration in the kidney histo-architecture.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our findings showed that <em>Aju Mbaise</em> extract could attenuate changes in renal functions, lipid profile, and haematological indices associated with Dutasteride toxicity in rats.</p> Robert Ikechukwu Uroko Paul Chukwuemaka Nweje-Anyalowu Ikenna Obiwuru Ogwo Elisha Uko Chinomso Friday Aaron Obinna Joseph Mba Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i2.961 The Effect of Foliar Application of Urea and Salicylic Acid on the Antibacterial Properties of Physalis alkekengi L. In vitro condition https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/847 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The <em>Physalis alkekengi</em> is a medicinal plant that has long been used in pharmaceutical, food and health products. Increasing and indiscriminate use of synthetic antibiotics against bacterial infections has increased drug resistance. As a result, today there is an increasing tendency among people to use drugs of natural origin, particularly herbal ones. In this regard, this study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial effects of alcoholic extract of <em>Physalis alkekengi</em> on some common bacteria in vitro condition.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this study, the alcoholic extract of <em>Physalis alkekengi</em> obtained from foliar application of urea fertilizer (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%) and salicylic acid (0.001. 0.0025, 0.005 and 0.01 mM) at four levels were used. For this purpose, antibacterial effects of the extracts were investigated by dilution methods in tube, disk and well diffusion method against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Shigella dysenteriae </em>and<em> Klebsiella pneumonia</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the present study indicated that the extracts of <em>Physalis alkekengi</em> have antibacterial effects under the influence of different treatments of urea and salicylic acid. Moreover, the results showed the effects of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentrations of different treatments of urea and salicylic acid. Among the tested concentrations, urea concentrations of 2% and 0.5% had the highest and lowest inhibitory effects on bacterial growth compared to the negative and positive control groups respectively. Salicylic acid with 0.01 and 0.001mM showed the highest and lowest bacterial growth inhibitory effects respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study showed that the extract of <em>Physalis alkekengi</em> contain suitable antibacterial substances that can be used as an alternative in cases of drug resistance against pathogenic microorganisms.</p> Ali Pezeshki Hassan Nourafcan Mehdi Oraei Naser Mohebalipour Assad Assadi Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i3.847 Fatty acids in Aristolochia L. Seeds from Iran https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/923 <p>None</p> Mojdeh Khajeh Maryam Keshavarzi Faezeh Fazeli Mehdi Ghanavati Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i3.923 Fatty Acid Composition of Lycium (Solanaceae) Species https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/924 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> There are more than one hundred species of <em>Lycium</em> (Solanaceae) in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. These drought-resistant medicinal plants have several applications in traditional medicine and modern pharmacy. The fruits of these plants contain vitamins A, E, and C, flavonoids, and other valuable biological compounds. In the present study, the amounts and types of fatty acids in the fruit pulp of <em>Lycium</em> species have been determined.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The samples were collected from natural habitats in Iran. Cold methylation and gas chromatography were used to extract fatty acids. By examining the drawn curves, fatty acids were identified. The significance of the quantitative results was assessed by a one-way analysis of variance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 22 major fatty acids were observed in the fruit pulps of <em>Lycium</em> species. The highest diversity of fatty acids was observed in <em>L. kopetdaghi</em>. In 4 species of <em>L. shawii</em>, <em>L. edgeworthii, L. ruthenicum,</em> and <em>L. depressum</em>, cis-linoleic is the major and abundant fatty acid, and only in <em>L. kopetdaghi</em>, the palmitic acid is more abundant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of the present study are in agreement with previous research. Due to the composition of valuable fatty acids in <em>Lycium</em> species, further research is recommended for its application in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.</p> Fatemeh Mousavimanesh Maryam Keshavarzi * Zahra Nazem Bokaee Faezeh Fazeli Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i1.924 Effects of Salicylic Acid and Chitosan Foliar Application on Extract Components and the Antibacterial Activity of Melissa officinalis L. https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/846 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> <em>Melissa officinalis</em> L. is a medicinal herb with antibacterial properties. This research was carried out to investigate the effects of the foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) and chitosan (Ch.) on ethanolic extracts components and antibacterial activity of <em>M. officinalis</em>L.in the flowering stage.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The antibacterial activities of the ethanol extracts were investigated using the agar dilution method, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimal bactericidal concentration against five bacteria, i.e. <em>S. aurous</em>, <em>B. subtilis</em>, <em>E. coli</em>, <em>S. enterica</em> and <em>P. mirabilis</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The major components were citronellal, Z-Citral, E-Citral, caryophyllene oxide, caryophyllene, linalool, carvacrol, α-Pinene and geraniol. The result showed that distinct concentration of Ch. and SA had remarkable effects on the chemical constituents of <em>M. officinalis </em>L. extract. All the examined bacteria were sensitive to the extracts of <em>M. officinalis </em>L. and antimicrobial activities of extracts against the examined bacteria depending on the concentration of the foliar application. The highest and lowest diameters of inhibition zones of the plant extracts were on <em>S. aurous </em>and <em>P. mirabilis</em> respectively. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 78.25 ppm to 1250 ppm, whereas the MBC values ranged from 156.5 ppm to 1250 ppm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>S. aurous</em> and <em>E. coli </em>were the most sensitive bacteria in Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria respectively. It was also observed that Ch. treatments were more effective on Gram-negative bacteria, while SA treatments were more influential on Gram-positive bacteria</p> Negin Safari Kamal Abadi Naser Mohebalipour * Mehdi Oraei Hassan Nourafcan Assad Assadi Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i1.846 Genus Rubia: Therapeutic Effects and Toxicity: A Review https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/903 <p>The Rubiaceae family taxonomic classification is complex. Genus Rubia with 70 species belongs to Rubieae tribe of Rubioideae subfamily of the Rubiaceae family. These species have been widely distributed and cultivated around the world, and are mainly concentrated in the tropics. The effects of bioactive metabolites of various parts, particularly roots of Rubia species have been thoroughly examined, and their pharmacological and toxicological effects have been described. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-arthritic, antiseizure and antimicrobial effects as well as toxicological properties of Rubia species have been previously reported. This study was conducted as a literature survey of various species of Rubiaceae published from 1992 to 2020. Moreover, their toxic and protective effects on living organisms were summarized.</p> Marzieh Eskandarzadeh Akam Esmaeili Mohammad Reza Nikbakht Yukio Hitotsuyanagi Yuri N Shkryl Javad Ghasemian Yadegari Hassan Rezazadeh Javad Khalilifard * Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-08-09 2022-08-09 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v8i1.903 A Narrative Review on the Natural Remedies Used in the Prevention and Symptomatic Treatment of Constipation in the Middle East https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/879 <p>Constipation is a common issue in developed and developing countries. On account of the multifactorial nature of this bowel problem, it has been indicated that current conventional treatments have limited efficacy and a higher incidence of side effects. This article aims to review various natural remedies that have proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of constipation and is an attempt to provide a framework for a better understanding of the pharmacology of these herbs. Treatments were identified from electronic databases such as ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and Scopus. Out of 103 studies found via electronic search, 49 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Anthraquinone, saponin, and fiber-rich plants may increase the frequency of defecation through their bulking and/or stimulant laxative effects. The intake of some herbs or their isolated purgative active constituents can be useful in constipated patients. However, if the patient has tried natural remedies for more than three days without success, it is preferred to refer to a physician to know the underlying cause of constipation.</p> Sareh Dortaj * Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal 2022-08-09 2022-08-09 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i4.879 In Vitro Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, and Antioxidant Screening of Aqueous Extracts of Blue Ternate (Clitoria ternatea L.) Flower https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/867 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Extracts of <em>Clitoria ternatea </em>flowers obtained through laboratory standard methods have been constantly reported to have various medicinal activities. However, no reports on such properties are available for this flower’s extracts obtained through common domestic extraction procedures. This study aimed to determine and compare the aqueous extracts (leachate, decoction, tea, and homogenate) of <em>C. ternatea</em> flowers for their antibacterial, anticoagulant, and antioxidant activities.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Agar well diffusion and Lee-White test tube method were used for antibacterial and anticoagulant assays, respectively. Moreover, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant assays of the extracts were conducted through the floating disc assay, and DPPH scavenging activity, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the present study revealed that although the extracts exhibited antibacterial activities against <em>Salmonella enterica</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, they did not differ significantly at p&gt;0.05. The extracts did not exhibit <em>in vitro </em>anticoagulant activity. Only the homogenate preparations showed catalase activity while all the extracts showed DPPH scavenging activity with the flower decoction as the highest % DPPH RSA harmonic mean of 56.24%, followed by the leachate (45.03%), and the tea (38.79%) and homogenate (37.74%) as the least.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>C. ternatea</em> flowers extracted through common domestic extraction methods were revealed to have antibacterial, procoagulant, and antioxidant properties. The extracts could also be subjected to phytochemical screening and could be studied for their other bioactive properties.</p> Roque Merrick Dacullo Jayzon Gaspay Bitacura * Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal 2022-08-09 2022-08-09 8 1 10.22087/hmj.v7i3.867