Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj <p><strong>ISSN: 2538-2144 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal </strong>is a <strong>free of charge</strong>, <strong>open access</strong>, quarterly <strong>peer-reviewed journal</strong> which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of&nbsp;<strong>herbal medicines.</strong></p> <p><strong>Herbal Medicine Journal is supported and published by <strong><em><a href="http://en.lums.ac.ir">Lorestan University of Medical Sciences</a>, Khorramabad, Iran</em></strong></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lorestan University of Medical sciences en-US Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2538-2144 <p>Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p><p><span>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</span> <span>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license <span>(</span><span dir="RTL"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span dir="LTR">CC-BY)</span></span></span></span></a></span><span>.</span> However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.</span></p> An Evaluation of the Antibacterial Properties of Oliveria decumbents against Bacteria Isolated from Patients with Respiratory Infections https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/976 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Medicinal plants have long been used as an alternative or complement to the treatment and prevention of respiratory tract infections<strong>.&nbsp;</strong>The present study attempts to investigate the antibacterial effects of&nbsp;<em>Oliveria decumbents</em>&nbsp;on bacterial infections isolated from a hospitalized patient with respiratory disorders.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Twenty-five respiratory infection samples were collected from fifty-one patients that were hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the medical centers of Jahrom, Iran. Plant materials were obtained from the natural environment areas around Jahrom, and hydro-alcoholic extraction was prepared through the percolation method.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>The antimicrobial impacts of the plant extract were evaluated by the disc diffusion method against clinical and standard strains, and the results were compared with common antibiotics. Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the herbal extracts was assessed by the broth macro dilution method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> From the 51 clinical samples,&nbsp;<em>S. aureus</em>&nbsp;(11 cases, 21.5%),&nbsp;<em>S. pneumoniae</em>&nbsp;(8 cases, 15.6%), and&nbsp;<em>P. aeruginosa</em>&nbsp;(6 cases, 11.7%) were isolated. Furthermore, this herbal&nbsp;extract showed antibacterial activity by inhibiting the growth of three strains of&nbsp;<em>S. aureus </em>and&nbsp;one strain of&nbsp;<em>S. pneumoniae</em>&nbsp;in comparison to Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate. Nevertheless, this extract did not affect <em>P. aeruginosa</em>&nbsp;clinical isolates. The MIC activity of the herbal extract for&nbsp;<em>S. aureus</em>&nbsp;with a concentration of 25 µg/ml, for&nbsp;<em>S. pneumoniae</em>&nbsp;with 50 µg/ml, and for&nbsp;<em>P. aeruginosa</em>&nbsp;with 200 µg/ml was observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hydro-alcoholic extract of <em>O. decumbens </em>showed antibacterial effects on different bacterial strains that were isolated from respiratory infections.</p> Farhad Moradi* Reyhane Rouhi Naser Hatami Helma Hoorang Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2023-05-19 2023-05-19 8 2 10.22087/hmj.v7i2.976 A Comparison of Antibacterial Effects of Licorice Root Ethanolic Extract, Chlorhexidine, and Doxycycline on Fusobacterium nucleatum: An in Vitro Study https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/999 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Antibiotics and mouthwashes which are used to prevent and treat periodontal diseases have side effects such as antibiotic resistance, mouth burning, and xerostomia. With the advancement of technology, plants have been considered as alternative antibacterial agents. Licorice plant with different species has been used in traditional medicine to treat gastritis and respiratory diseases. Considering the properties of licorice in traditional medicine, this study aimed to investigate the antibacterial properties of licorice root extract with different concentrations compared with Chlorhexidine mouthwash and Doxycycline antibiotic on <em>Fusobacterium nucleatum</em> in vitro.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> After the preparation of 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspension, the plant and its ethanolic extract, and six extract dilutions were also prepared. Agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution tests were carried out against<em> Fusobacterium nucleatum</em> ATCC 2558. The antibacterial effect of Chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.2% and Doxycycline 100 mg antibiotic were also determined to be compared with licorice extract. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests in spss26 software at a significance level of 5%.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All the six concentrations had significant antibacterial effects compared with each other, chlorhexidine and doxycycline (P-value&lt;0.05). The inhibitory concentrations of extract, MIC50, MIC70, and, MIC90 were related to 12/5, 50, and 200 mg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory percentages of chlorhexidine and doxycycline were 67.6% and 88.7%, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Licorice ethanolic extract exhibited an excellent antimicrobial effect (MIC=6.25mg/ml), so that in concentrations higher than 25, a greater antimicrobial effect was observed than in chlorhexidine (P&lt;0.05).</p> Mohammadreza Tabatabaeian Vahid Esfahanian* Arezoo Tahmourespour Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2023-05-19 2023-05-19 8 2 10.22087/hmj.v7i2.999 Effects of Sour Tea (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) Consumption on Anthropometric Indices: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/975 <p>Beverages of <em>Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.</em> (sour tea) are widely used for improving liver diseases, hypertension cardio-metabolic indices, and body composition. Nevertheless, little is known about the impacts of sour tea on body composition and anthropometric indices. This study aimed to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis on the evidence evaluating the effects of sour tea on body composition and anthropometric indices. International databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, were searched to find clinical trial studies published up to February 2022. The response variables examined in the present study included body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat mass, and hip circumference. Pooled effect size of mean difference (95% CI) between the treatment and placebo interventions was estimated for body weight (-0.51 kg, -3.35, 2.32), body mass index (-0.09 kg/m2, -0.98, 0.80), waist circumference (-0.26 cm, -2.86, 2.35), hip circumference (-0.07 cm, -2.87, 2.74), and body fat mass (-1.85 %, -4.90, 1.19). This meta-analysis showed that despite the reducing effect of sour tea consumption on body composition and anthropometric indices, this effect was not statistically significant. However, there are several determinant factors that probably affected our findings, including the type, dosage, and duration of the intervention as well as the heterogeneity of the target population. Thus, future well‑designed clinical trials are suggested to establish a definitive conclusion in this regard.</p> Somayeh Saboori* Salman Mohammadi Mahboobe Hosseinikia Naseh Pahlavani Ali Ghaffarian-Bahraman Esmaeil Yousefi Rad* Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2023-04-29 2023-04-29 8 2 10.22087/hmj.v8i2.975 In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Taraxacum officinale Leaves Extract https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/980 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The purpose of this letter to the editor was to investigate the antibacterial activity of <em>Taraxacum officinale</em> leaves extract.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In the present study, <em>Taraxacum officinale</em> leaves were collected from the University of Ghana Staff Village, and then ethanolic and methanolic extractions were performed. The antimicrobial activity of <em>Taraxacum officinale</em> leaves extract against <em>Staphylococcus aureus,</em> <em>Escherichia coli</em><strong><em>,</em></strong> and <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> was evaluated using the agar well diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was resistant to the ethanolic extract of <em>T. officinale</em> leaves but it was effective against<em> Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>. The methanolic extract was effective against all of them ectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the results, the methanolic extract of <em>Taraxacum officinale</em> leaves could exhibit in vitro antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>, and <em>Escherichia coli</em>.</p> Leonidas Narkey, Eric Nyarko Justice Kumi* Gloria Kattah Bright Selorm Addy Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2023-04-29 2023-04-29 8 2 10.22087/hmj.v7i4.980 Protective Effects of Grape Seed Extract (GSE) against the Respiratory System following Formalin Exposure on Balb/c Mice https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/969 <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: As it has been reported in previous studies, the prevalence of respiratory distress is related to a variety of environmental factors. Among them, formaldehyde exposure also irritates the respiratory tract and augments the risk of airway diseases. The aims of this study was to determine the protective impacts of grape seed extract against (GSE) following formaldehyde exposure on Balb/c mice.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Twenty-four adult Balb/c mice were divided into the following groups: 1-control (Ctrl) group, 2-formaldehyde exposure (FOR) group, 3-formaldehyde exposure and grape seed extract treatment (FOR+GSE) group and 4- grape seed extract treatment (GSE) group. The mice in groups 3 and 4 received 200 mg/kg GSE intraperitoneally and the mice in groups 2 and 3 were exposed to 3 mg/m3 formalin from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m., 7 h/day, 6 days/week, for 4 weeks. At the end of experimental periods, the tissue samples were removed from the trachea and the lungs and immersed in 10% formalin to be prepared for histological examination. Finally, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was evaluated in the plasma of the blood samples.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusions: </strong>Data analysis showed that formaldehyde exposure could significantly reduce the weight of the mice <em>(p&lt;0.05).</em> Moreover, formaldehyde caused epithelial metaplasia and edema of sub-epithelial space in the trachea. The wall of blood vessels was thickened. However, GSE consumption moderated some of formaldehyde effects. Treatment with GSE significantly reduced the MDA level p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> GSE could reduce the marker of oxidative stress and stimulate antioxidant defenses against formaldehyde inhalation.</p> Hasan Pahang* Bahram Bibak Mehran Vatanchian Yazdi Ali Shamsara Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2023-04-29 2023-04-29 8 2 113 119 10.22087/hmj.v6i3.969 Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Potentials of Merremia hederacea (Burm.Fil) Leaves https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/789 <p><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>This study aimed to identify the existence of phytochemical compounds and evaluate the <em>in-vitro</em> antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of the leaves extract of <em>Merremia hederacea</em> which is commonly known as ivy woodrose.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The antioxidant potency was measured using DPPH radical scavenging method and reducing power capacity followed by calculating phenol and flavonoid contents. To test the anti-inflammatory effect, the protein-denaturation method was applied.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Based on the DPPH scavenging activity, the IC<sub>50</sub> value of the extract was determined to be 416.977. The amounts of phenolic content and flavonoids as well as the reducing power of this extract were found satisfactory. The extract remarkably hindered the denaturation of protein in the anti-inflammatory activity test with a maximum of 68.86% inhibition at 500 μg/mL concentration.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results indicate that <em>M. hederacea</em> leaves have favorable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potencies; hence, this plant can be an effective source of new potent drugs</p> Sanjida Sharmin* Ranak Jahan Prova Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal 2023-04-29 2023-04-29 8 2 146 152 10.22087/hmj.v6i4.789 The Effect of Rosa damascena on Children’s Enuresis: A Randomized Pilot Study https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/953 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Enuresis is one of the common problems among children. The present pilot study was conducted to investigate the effect of Rosa damascene on nocturnal enuresis in children.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A randomized pilot study was performed from April 2017 to March 2018. The study participants were 40 children aged between 5-12 years with nocturnal enuresis. They were randomly divided to intervention and control groups using block randomization. The intervention group received <em>R. damascena</em> petals under the brand name Gole-Ghand (Barij- essence, Iran) as 5 cc orally, every 8 hours for one month. The control group received desmopressin as nasal spray (Sina Darou, Iran) 1-2 puffs for one month (maximum 20 mg daily). The primary outcome was complete or partial improvement in enuresis. The secondary outcome was frequency of side effects in patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Twenty-two out of 39 patients 22 (56.4%) were male and 17 patients (43.6%) were female with the average age of 7.3±1.86 years. There was no noticeable distinction between the groups in age, sex, urbanity, history of treatment, and primary or secondary enuresis (p&gt;0.05). Complete improvement was observed in 14 patients (70%) in the control group. Partial improvement was observed in four patients (20%) in the control group and in six patients (31.5%) in the intervention group (p:0.001). No side effect was reported during the study in the intervention group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results of this pilot study, the use of R.<em> damascena</em> may lead to partial improvement against enuresis in some children. Further studies are required to evaluate this hypothesis.</p> Anoush Azarfar Ramin Sargazi Elham Bakhtiari* Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2023-04-29 2023-04-29 8 2 153 157 10.22087/hmj.v6i4.953 The Use of Dandelion for Treating Various Types of Cancers https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/918 <p>None</p> Siukan Law Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2023-02-12 2023-02-12 8 2 10.22087/hmj.v8i1.918 Anti-Tumor Effects of the Methanol Extract of Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich Fruits on Human Gastric (MKN-45) and Breast (MCF-7) Cancer Cell Lines https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/875 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The <em>Ecballium elaterium </em>(L.) A. Rich belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family and is a Mediterranean medicinal herb with a medicinal background. In the present study, following our previous research, we aimed to evaluate the expression profile of certain significant genes involved in the process of apoptosis in human gastric (MKN-45) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines treated with the methanol extract of <em>E. elaterium</em> fruits.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The real-time PCR method was employed to calculate the expression levels of p53, bax, and bcl-2 genes in both MKN-45 and MCF-7 cell lines. Moreover, the bax/bcl-2 mRNA ratio was calculated in both cell lines.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Real-time PCR revealed that <em>E. elaterium </em>fruit extract-treated MKN-45 cells underwent a strong reduction in the mRNA levels of bcl-2 (0.04-fold) (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.0001) together with an increase in p53 (18.23-fold) (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.0001) and a significant reduction in bax (0.31-fold) (<em>p</em> &lt;0.01). However, the up-regulation of bax (55.51-fold) (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.0001) and bcl-2 (17.68-fold) (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05) genes with a concomitant revealed no significant result for p53 (2.32-fold) gene observed in MCF-7 cells. This extract had strong apoptotic activity on MKN-45 cells. The bax/bcl-2 mRNA ratio in<em> E. elaterium </em>fruit extract-treated MKN-45 cells was significant in comparison with the control group (7.24-fold higher and<em> p</em>= 0.0133), but this ratio was not remarkable in <em>E. elaterium </em>fruit extract-treated MCF-7 cells compared with the control group (3.95-fold higher and <em>p</em>= 0.0811).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this research indicated that <em>E. elaterium </em>fruit extract could be a promising therapeutic option against gastric cancer.</p> Samaneh Keshavarz Fatemeh Yousefbeyk Saghi Jani Kargar Moghaddam Mahsa Ramezanpour Puyan Daei Saeed Ghasemi Masoud Hamidi Javad Khalili Fard* Copyright (c) 2023 Herbal Medicines Journal 2023-02-12 2023-02-12 8 2 77 85 10.22087/hmj.v6i2.875 The Coagulant Effect of the Medicago sativa L. Hydroalcoholic Extract: An in vivo Study on Mice https://hmj.lums.ac.ir/index.php/hmj/article/view/954 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Herbal medicines are used in the treatment of many diseases, including blood-related disorders. <em>Mediacgo sativa</em>, which is used in traditional medicine to stop bleeding, contains several secondary compounds, is assumed to be effective in primary and secondary blood coagulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of <em>M. sativa</em> extract on blood coagulation system in vivo.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Twenty-four male mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8) as follows: negative control (receiving 0.3 ml of distilled water), positive control (receiving 0.3 ml of tranexamic acid, 1200 mg/kg/day) and the treatment group (receiving 0.3 ml of the hydroalcoholic extract of <em>M. sativa</em>, 300 mg/kg/day)<strong>.</strong> On the 13<sup>th</sup> day of treatment, collection of blood samples from the tail tip for bleeding time (BT), clotting time (CT), and number of platelets was carried out. On the 14<sup>th</sup> day, the blood samples were collected from the heart and prothrombin time (PT), activating the partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) as indicators of coagulation rate that were determined.&nbsp; The GC-MS was also used to determine extract compounds.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results indicated that <em>M. sativa</em> extract had a significant prolonged effect on the aPTT and PT. Furthermore, this extract increased platelet count, though it significantly reduced coagulation time in BT and CT.&nbsp;It was concluded that <em>M. sativa</em> extract could have beneficial effects on the initial blood homeostasis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Given the highly beneficial effect on coagulation and then tranexamic acid, this extract can be recommended as a potential homeostatic remedy after further clinical evaluations.</p> Jafar Vatandoost* Zahra Sadat Mashkani Toktam Hajjar Behnam Mahdavi Copyright (c) 2022 Herbal Medicines Journal (Herb Med J) 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 8 2 10.22087/hmj.v7i2.954