Effects of Zataria Multiflora, Mentha Longifolia, and Origanum Vulgare Plant Essential Oils on the Inhibition of Candida Albicans

  • pegah shakib Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3525-226X
  • Roya Malek Hossrini Department of Microbiology, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran
  • Farbod Teymouri Department of Specialized Veterinary Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Arjomandzadegan Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari* Department of Microbiology, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran
Keywords: Candida albicans, Anti-fungal, Essential oil, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)


Background and Aim: In recent years, yeast, particularly Candida species, has been the most common fungus separated from human infections. In this research, effects of essential oils of some plants on the clinical strains of Candida albicans were examined. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical strains of Candida were obtained from the Infectious Diseases Research Center of Arak University of Medical Sciences. After preparing the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Mentha longifolia, and Origanum vulgare, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oils against Candida albicans strains was determined. the Morphological changes at different times were investigated using the negative staining method and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results: The results of the disc diffusion test indicated that the highest resistance rates in 0.625 mg/ml of O. vulgare, M. longifolia, and Z. multiflora essential oils were 31(77.5%), 15(37.5%), and 13(32.5%), respectively. The lowest MIC was related to Z. Multiflora essential oil (0.625 mg/ml). After treatment with the essential oils, the yeasts immediately decreased at zero hour. This decrease became more noticeable with the passage of time and reached the minimum number after 24 hours. Moreover, electron microscope images showed changes in the morphology of the yeasts. Conclusion: Zataria multiflora, Mentha longifolia, and Origanum vulgare essential oils, particularly Zataria multiflora, had antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans that were isolated to be studied. Thus, Zataria multiflora essential oil can be used as an anti-candida agent in the preparation of antifungal compounds


Mayer FL, Wilson D, Hube B. Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence.2013;4(2):119-28.

Berman J. Candida albicans. Curr Biol.2012;22(16):R620-R2.

Wilson D. Candida albicans.Trands microbiol. 2019;27(2):188-9.

Sobel J, Sobel R. Current treatment options for vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by azole-resistant Candida species. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018;19(9):971-7.

Whaley SG, Berkow EL, Rybak JM, Nishimoto AT, Barker KS, Rogers P. Azole antifungal resistance in Candida albicans and emerging non-albicans Candida species. Front Microbiol.2017;7:2173.

Naeem A, Saddique S, Chand SA. Advancement and Future Directions towards Herbal Treatment for Various Diseases. Saudi J Med Pharm Sc.2019.

Wachtel-Galor S, Benzie IF. Herbal medicine. 2011:1.

Ali MS, Saleem M, Ali Z, Ahmad VU. Chemistry of zataria multiflora (lamiaceae). Phytochemistry.2000;55(8):933-6.

Sajed H, Sahebkar A, Iranshahi M. Zataria multiflora Boiss.(Shirazi thyme)—an ancient condiment with modern pharmaceutical uses. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145(3):686-98.

Monfared A, Nabid MR, Rustaiyan A. Composition of a carvone chemotype of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. from Iran. J Essent Oil Res.2002;14(1):51-2.

Golparvar AR, Hadipanah A, Mehrabi A. Diversity in chemical composition from two ecotypes of (Mentha longifolia L.) and (Mentha spicata L.) in Iran climatic conditions. J biodivers.2015;6(4):26-33.

(Vazirian M, Mohammadi M, Farzaei M, Amin G, Amanzadeh Y. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran. Res j pharmacogn. 2015;2(1):41-6.

Bahmani M, Khaksarian M, Rafieian-Kopaei MJJoC, Research D. Overview of the therapeutic effects of Origanum vulgare and Hypericum perforatum based on Iran's ethnopharmacological documents. J Clin Diagn Res.2018;12(7): FE01--FE4.

Pingret D, Fabiano-Tixier A-S, Chemat F. An improved ultrasound Clevenger for extraction of essential oils. Food Anal Methods. 2014;7:9-12.

Barchiesi F, Colombo AL, McGough DA, Rinaldi MG. Comparative study of broth macrodilution and microdilution techniques for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards' proposed standard. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1994 Oct;32(10):2494-500.

Bansod S, Rai M. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Indian medicinal plants against human pathogenic Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger. World J Medical Sci. 2008;3(2):81-8.

Widodo GP, Sukandar EY, Adnyana IK, Sukrasno S. Mechanism of Action of Coumarin against Candida albicans by SEM/TEM Analysis. J Math Fundam Sci. 2012;44:145-51.

Duarte MCT, Leme EE, Delarmelina C, Soares AA, Figueira GM, Sartoratto A. Activity of essential oils from Brazilian medicinal plants on Escherichia coli. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111(2): 197-201.

Aghel N, Moghimipour E, AMERI AG. Characterization of an anti-dermatophyte cream from Zataria multiflora Boiss. Iran J Pharm Sci. 2007; 3(2): 77-84.

Hemaiswarya S, Kruthiventi AK, Doble MJP. Synergism between natural products and antibiotics against infectious diseases. Phytomedicine.2008;15(8):639-52.

Maurya A, Prasad J, Das S, Dwivedy A. Essential oils and their application in food safety. Front Sustain Food Syst.2021;5:653420.

Carpena M, Nuñez-Estevez B, Soria-Lopez A, Garcia-Oliveira P, Prieto MAJR. Essential oils and their application on active packaging systems: A review. Resources.2021;10(1):7.

Javanmard M, Ramazan Y. Application of edible coatings incorporated Avishan-e Shirazi (Zataria multiflora) alcoholic extract for inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth on the pistachio kernel. J Med Plant.2009;8(30):61-167.

Viuda‐Martos M, Ruiz‐Navajas Y, Fernández‐López J, Pérez‐Álvarez J. Antifungal activities of thyme, clove and oregano essential oils. J Food Saf. 2007;27(1):91-101.

Lahooji A, Mirabolfathy M, Karami-Osboo R. Effect of Zataria multiflora and Satureja hortensis essential oils, thymol and carvacrol on growth of Fusarium gramineum isolates and deoxynivalenol production. Iran. J Plant Pathol.2010;46(1):37-50.

Niczad A, Sharafzadeh S, Alizadeh A, Amiri B, Bazrafshan F. Variability in essential oil constituent, phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different ecotypes of Zataria multiflora Boiss. from Iran. J Essent Oil Bear Pl. 2019 ; 2;22(6):1435-49.

Bagamboula C, Uyttendaele M, Debevere J. Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Food Microbiol.2004;21(1):33-42.

Langroodi AM, Fathabad AE, Moulodi F, Mashak Z, Abad M. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of barberry and Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil against some food-borne bacteria. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2018;22(2): ; e83087.

Mohseni M, Ataei Azimi A, Delnavaz Hashemloian B, Farzami Sepehr M. Macroscopic and microscopic study of antifungal effects of alkaloids, phenol and essential oil of Fumaria vaillantii on Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. Dev Biol. 2021 Aug 23;13(3):1-4.

Original Article