Assessment of the Effect of the Combination of the Pistacia vera L. Gum Methanolic Extract and Ketamine on Anesthetic Parameters in Male Rats

  • Pouya Khoshraftar Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran
  • Saeid Abbasi-Maleki* Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
Keywords: Pistacia vera gum, Adjuvants, Anesthetic agents, GABAergic system


Background and Aim: Several pharmacological properties, including muscle relaxant, and hypnotic as well as anxiolytic effects have been attributed to Pistacia vera gum. Hence, this study aimed to assess a blend of Pistacia vera gum methanolic extract and ketamine on anesthesia parameters in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 24 male rats (220-250 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups, including Pistacia vera extract alone (PV;500mg/kg, i.p.), Pistacia vera-ketamine (PVK;500mg/kg-80mg/kg, i.p., respectively), and diazepam-ketamine (DK;2.5 mg/kg-80 mg/kg, i.p., respectively) group (n=8). For this purpose, induction, and duration of surgical anesthesia (SA) walking time, heart and respiratory rate, body temperature, and withdrawal reflexes (pedal withdrawal, lip, and tail pinches) were evaluated during 55 min. Results: The results of the present study showed that in both of the groups (except the PV group) SA was induced, and walking time in the PVK group was remarkably faster than the DK group (p<0.05). Heart rate was increased in the PVK group compared with the other two groups (p<0.05). Respiratory rates were decreased in the PV and PVK groups compared with the DK group (p<0.05). Body temperature in the PVK group decreased compared with the PV and DK groups (p<0.05). Lip and tail pinch were not significant between the PVK and DK groups, but in pedal pinch scores, the PVK group was better than the DK group in pain inhibition (p<0.05). Conclusion: Anesthesia with PVK combination is preferred to a short time of anesthesia, and the pre-anesthetic properties of Pistacia vera gum extract are similar to diazepam. However, further studies are needed to identify its exact mechanism of action.


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Original Article