The in Vitro Effects of Echinophora Cinerea on Cell Line, Giardia Lamblia Cyst, and Giardia Muris

  • Behrouz Ezatpour Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • Mahmoud Bahmani * Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • Mehdi Azami Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
  • Farnaz Kheirandish * Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
  • Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei * Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
Keywords: Echinophora cinerea, Giardia lamblia cyst, Giardia muris, In vitro


Background and Aim: Currently, Giardia lamblia is the most common parasitic protozoan in many countries, including Iran, and the most important cause of diarrhea among travelers, children, and homosexuals. Chemical drugs could be used to treat giardiasis. These drugs can have carcinogenic effects and can lead to drug resistance, which is being reported from different regions across the world, including Iran.Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted to phytochemically analyze Echinophora cinerea, and to compare the in vitro effects of E. cinerea extract and metronidazole on G. lamblia and Giardia muris. In addition, this research investigates the in vitro effect of ethanolic E. cinerea extract on G. lamblia and G. muris cysts as well as the cytotoxicity of this extract on cell line from the SFIF-PI-44 (intestine of sheep) and IEC-18 (ileum of rat).Results: α-phellandrene was found to be the most significant and abundant compound of E. cinerea. According to the findings, 4 and 8 mg/mL of E. cinerea caused the gradual destruction of G. muris cysts (6.83 and 7.89 cysts/h, respectively). Moreover, 4 and 8 mg/mL of the same extract caused the gradual destruction of G. lamblia cysts (7.92 and 7.89 cysts/h, respectively).  Furthermore, the mean rate of cysts destruction was found to be 8.83 cysts/h by 8 mg/mL of E. cinerea extract.Conclusion: Regarding the optimal effects of E. cinerea, further research seems necessary on the in vitro antigiardial effects of this plant.


Topley and Willson's. Microbiology and microbial infections. 10th edition. Vol 5. New York: Springer; 2001: 141-55.

Lujan HD, Mowatt MR, Nash TE. The molecular mechanisms of Giardia Encystation. Parasitol today. 1998;14:446-50.

Schmidt GD, Roberts LS. Foundation of parasitology. Mc Graw-Hill Book Co. 2000; pp. 83-8.

Saebi. Porotozal disease in iran, Text book of clinical parasitology. 1998; pp.81-95.

Wensaas KA, Langeland N, Hanevik K, Morch K, Eide GE, Rortveit G. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute giardiasis: historic cohort study. Gut. 2012;61(2):214-9.

Abdi YA, Gustafsson LL, Ericsson O' et al. Handbook of drugs for tropical parasitic infections. 2nd ed. London: Taylor & Francis Ltd; 1995:15-6.

Azadbakht M, Azadbakht MS. Five prevalent antiprotozoal herbal drugs. J Mazand Univ Med Sci. 2008;18(67):118-32.

Harris JC, Plummer S, Lloyd D. Antigiardial drugs. App Microbiol Biotech 2001; 57(5-6): 614-619.

Harandi S, DalimiAsl A, Ghaffarifar F. In vitro and in vivo effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris. Hakim Res J. 2006;9(3):58-64.

Farsangi M. Killing effect of Zataria multiflora on cysts of Giardia lamblia in vitro. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;4(1):88-95.

Brandelli CL, Giordani RB, De Carli GA, Tasca T. Indigenous traditional medicine: in vitro antigiardial activity of plants used in the treatment of diarrhea. Parasitol Res. 2009;104(6):1345-9.

Muzaffariyan, A Dictionary of Iranian Plant Names: Latin, English, Persian. Farhang Moaser; 1998.

Shafizadeh F. Medicinal Plants of Lorestan Province. Hayian Publisher, Tehran; 2002.

Ahmadi S, Babakhanlu P, Karimifar MA. Medicinal plants of Lorestan. Yafteh. 2010;11(5):85-100.

Avijgan M, Saadat M, Nilforoosh Zadeh M, Hafizi M. Anti-fungal effect of Echinophora Platyloba extract on some common Dermatophytes. J Herbal Drugs. 2006;5(18):10-6.

Hashemi P, Abolghasemi MM, Ghiasvand AR, Ahmadi S, Hassanvand H, Yarahmadi A. A comparative study of hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation–solvent microextraction methods for identification of volatile components of Echinophora cinerea. Chromatographia. 2009;69(1-2):179-82.

Avijgan M, Hafizi M, Saadat M, Nilforoushzadeh MA. Antifungal effect of Echinophora Platyloba's extract against Candida albicans. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2010;5(4):285-9.

Boyraz N, Özcan M. Antifungal effect of some spice hydrosols. Fitoterapia. 2005;76(7):661-5.

Avijgan M, Mahboubi M, Darabi M, Saadat M, Sarikhani S, Kassaiyan N. Overview on Echinophora platyloba a synergistic anti-fungal agent candidate. Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research. 2010;5:88-94.

Delaram M, Sadeghiyan Z. The effect of echinophora-platyloba extract on primary of dysmenorrhea. Arak Medical University Journal. 2010;13(3):61-7.

Eshraghi S, Amin G, Othari A. Evaluation of antibacterial properties and review of 10 medicinal herbs on preventing the growth of pathogenic Nocardia species. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2009;8(32):60-789.

Nourozi M. Evaluation of photochemical and antimicrobial effect of Echinophora platyloba: PhD Thesis. Faculty of Pharmacy of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Pharmacogenosy Department. 1989, 35-40.

Lucca Ad, Bland J, Vigo C, Cushion M, Selitrennikoff C, Peter J, et al. CAY-1, a fungicidal saponin from Capsicum sp. fruit. Medical Mycology. 2002;40(2):131-7.

Renault S, De Lucca A, Boue S, Bland J, Vigo C, Selitrennikoff C. CAY-I, a novel antifungal compound from cayenne pepper. Medical Mycology. 2003;41(1):75-82.

Arab S, Motamedi M, Khansari N, Moazzeni SM, Gheflati Z, Hadjati J. Dendritic cell maturation with CpG for tumor immunotherapy. Iran J Immunol. 2006;3(3):99-105.

Ahmad VU, Jassbi AR, Pannahi MSC. Analysis of the essential oil of Echinophora sibthorpiana Guss. by means of GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR techniques. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 1999;11(1):107-8.

Baser K, Özek T, Demircakmak B, Bicakci A, Malyer H. Essential Oil of Echinophora chrysantha Freyn et Sint. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 1996;8(4):433-4.

Hashemi V, Ghannadi A, Pezeshkian SK. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Satureja hortensis L extracts and essential oil. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2002;82(2):83-7.

Sajjadi SE, Ghannadi A. Composition of the essential oil of Echinophora cinerea (Boiss.) Hedge et Lamond. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2002;14(2):114-5.

Ahmadi L, Mirza M, Khorram MT. Essential Oil of Echlnophora cinerea (Boiss.) Hedge and Lamond from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2001;13(2):82-3.

Farsangi Mohammad H, Sahebani N, Movahed A, Tahmasebi R, Raiani M. Lethal effect of Thymus vulgaris on Giardia cyst; in vitro. Iranian South Medical Journal. 2002;2(4):88-95.

Al-kaissi I. The effect of Aqueous some plants Extract on Giardia lamblia in vitro. Al-Anbar J Vet Sci. 2010;3(2).

Safarnejad Tameshkel F, Khatami Nejad M, Nasrollahi A, Rahdari P, Gholam Hossein Poor F, Rahnavard A. The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanol Extracts of Eucalyptus, Satureia Hortensis and Heracleum Glabrescens on Giardia Cysts. Medical Laboratory Journal. 2012;6(2):21-7.

Bavand Z, Gholami S, Honari S, Rahimi B, Torabi N, Borabadi H. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Giardia lamblia cyst stage in In vitro. Arak Medical University Journal. 2012(79):27-37.

Fallahi S, Delfan B, Badparva E, Mohammadi M, Ebrahimzadeh F, Rashidipour M. Effect of Olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts and compare with Metronidazole In-Vitro. The final report of the research project, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences.2009.

Shahabi S, Ayazi F, Kamalinejad M, al. e. Anti-Giardial activity of Carum copticum on Giardia lamblia cysts in vitro. Pejouhesh 2009(32):303–7.

Sadjjadi SM, Rostami J, Azadbakht M. Giardiacidal activity of lemon juice, vinifer and vinegar on Giardia intestinalis cysts. 2006;37(3):24-27.

Original Article