An Ethno-Botanical Survey of Plants Used in Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment: A Case Study of Gusau in Nigeria
AbstractBackground and Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease, is known as the most prevalent type of polyarticular inflammatory arthritis with a variety of features, including continual synovial inflammation, bony erosions, and progressive destruction with varying physical disability and degrees of pains. The aim of this study is to provide the knowledge about plants used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment by people residing in Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out using an electronic questionnaire to obtain information about plants used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The plants that were used, part of the plant(s), mode of preparation, and transferability of knowledge were documented. Results: About 12 plant species, i.e. Allium sativum Linn., Curcuma longa Linn., Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich., Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Telfairia occidentalis Hook.f., Moringa oleifera Lam., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Vernonia amygdalina Del., Momordica charantia Linn., Persea americana Mill., Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn., and Nigella sativa Linn. were reported in a different frequency, with 16.83% of the respondents reporting herbal mixtures without a knowledge source of the plants. The plant parts used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment were roots, leaves, bulbs, fruits, and stems prepared in different forms like grinding, decoction, infusion, herbal mixture, and blending. Conclusion: There is a great level of transfer of these medicinal plants' knowledge to friends and family members. This ethnobotanical survey has shown these plants' local uses in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.
Alam SM, Kidwai AA, Jafri SR, Qureshi BM, Sami A, Qureshi HH, et al. Epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis in a tertiary care unit, Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2011;61(2):123-6.
Kaur A, Nain P, Nain J. Herbal plants used in treating rheumatoid arthritis: a review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012;4(4):44-57.
Tor-Anyiin TA, Shaato R, Oluma HOA. Ethnobotanical survey of antimalarial medicinal plants amongst the Tiv people of Nigeria. J Herbs Spices Med Plants. 2003;10(3):61-74.
Igoli JO, Ogaji OG, Tor-Anyiin TA, Igoli NP. Traditional medicine practice amongst the Igede people of Nigeria Part II. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2005;2(2):134-52.
Adjanohoun E, Ahiyi MRA, Ake Assi L, Dramane K, Eewude JA, Fadoju SO, et al. Traditional Medicine and Pharmacopoeia: Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in western Nigeria. Organization of African Unity/Scientific-Technical Commission. 1991. p. 420
Gbolade AA, Soremekun RO. A survey of aromatic plants of economic importance in Nigeria. The Nigerian J. Pharm. 1998; 29:50-62.
Gbolade AA. Medicinal and pesticidal potential of Nigerian plants. In: Mansingh A. editor.International Symposium on Natural Products in Developing Countries. Trends and Needs. 2000
Rashid MH. Medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of various diseases. BFRI (Bangladesh Forest Research Institute). 2001. p.4-6.
Osowole O, Ajaiyeoba E, Bolaji O, Akinboye D, Fawole O, Gbotosho G. A survey of treatment practices for febrile illness among traditional healers in the Nigerian middle belt zone. Afr J Trad CAM. 2005;2(3):337-44.
Ajaiyeoba EO, Ogbole OO, Ogundipe OO. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in the traditional management of viral infections in the Ogun State of Nigeria. Eur J Sci Res. 2006;13(1):64-73.
Khan NA, Rashid AZM. A study on the indigenous medicinal plants and healing practices in Chittagong hill tracts (Bangladesh). Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2006;3(3):37-47.
Nwachukwu CU, Umeh CN, Kalu IG. Identification and traditional uses of some common medicinal plants in Ezinihitte Mbaise L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. Rep Opinion. 2010;2(6):1-8.
Ogbole O, Gbolade A, Ajaiyeoba EO. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in the treatment of inflammatory disease in the Ogun State of Nigeria. Eur J Sci Res. 2010;43(2):183-91.
Wikipedia (2020). Gusau. Available from: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gusau [accessed 8th November 2020]
Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. 2nd ed. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Limited (Publisher); 1993
Kiuchi F, Shibuya M, Sankawa U. Inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis from ginger. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1982;30(2):754-7.
Kiuchi F, Iwakami S, Shibuya M, Hanaoka F, Sankawa U. Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992;40(2):387-91.
Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders. Med Hypotheses. 1992;39(4):342-8.
Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Sawan SM, Alnaqeeb MA, Khan I, Ali M. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002;67(6):475-8.
Ojewole JA. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats. Phytother Res. 2006;20(9):764-72.
Lantz RC, Chen GJ, Sarihan M, Sólyom AM, Jolad SD, Timmermann BN. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(2-3):123-8.
Funk JL, Frye JB, Oyarzo JN, Timmermann BN. Comparative effects of two gingerol-containing Zingiber officinale extracts on experimental rheumatoid arthritis. J Nat Prod. 2009;72(3):403-7.
Shimoda H, Shan SJ, Tanaka J, Seki A, Seo JW, Kasajima N, et al. Anti-inflammatory properties of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) extract and suppression of nitric oxide production by its constituents. J Med Food. 2010;13(1):156-62.
Ribel-Madsen S, Bartels EM, Stockmarr A, Borgwardt A, Cornett C, Danneskiold-Samsøe B, et al. A synoviocyte model for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: response to Ibuprofen, betamethasone, and ginger extract-a cross-sectional in vitro study. Arthritis. 2012;2012:505842.
Daily JW, Yang M, Park S. Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. J Med Food. 2016;19(8):717-29.
Dai Q, Zhou D, Xu L, Song X. Curcumin alleviates rheumatoid arthritis-induced inflammation and synovial hyperplasia by targeting mTOR pathway in rats. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2018;12:4095-105.
Shyamala T, Kumar OA, Padal S. Ethnomedicinal plants used for rheumatoid arthritis by tribal people in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine. 2016;3(1):1-5.
Ogunmefun OT, Gbile ZO. An ethnobotanical study on anti-rheumatic plants in south-western states of Nigeria. Asian J Sci Technol. 2012;4(11):063-6.
Hadi V, Kheirouri S, Alizadeh M, Khabbazi A, Hosseini H. Effects of Nigella sativa oil extract on inflammatory cytokine response and oxidative stress status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2016;6(1):34-43.
Mahdi HJ, Khan NAK, Asmawi MZB, Mahmud R, A/L Murugaiyah V. In vivo anti-arthritic and anti-nociceptive effects of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves on complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. Integr Med Res. 2018;7(1):85-94.
Nonose N, Pereira JA, Machado PR, Rodrigues MR, Sato DT, Martinez CA. Oral administration of curcumin (Curcuma longa) can attenuate the neutrophil inflammatory response in zymosan-induced arthritis in rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2014;29(11):727-34.
Fürst R, Zündorf I. Plant-derived anti-inflammatory compounds: hopes and disappointments regarding the translation of preclinical knowledge into clinical progress. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:146832.
Barros EP, Soares De Souza S, Faria RX, Rocha LM. Clinical trials studies of plant extracts with anti-inflammatory activity. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2016;6(12):224–32.
Ribeiro VP, Arruda C, Abd El-Salam M, Bastos JK. Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities: a review. Pharm Biol. 2018;56(1):253-68.
Singh S, Singh TG, Mahajan K, Dhiman S. Medicinal plants used against various inflammatory biomarkers for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2020;72(10):1306-27.
Salihu T, Olukunle JO, Adenubi OT, Mbaoji C, Zarma MH. Ethnomedicinal plant species commonly used to manage arthritis in North-West Nigeria. South African J Bot. 2018;118:33–43.
Okpoko C, Ezenyi I, Adzu B, Salawu, O. Evaluation of two medicinal plants used for arthritis in northern Nigeria with focus on Terminalia avicennioides Guill. & Perr. and its mechanism of action. Scientific African. 2020(8):e00357.
Cock IE, van Vuuren SF. Anti-Proteus activity of some South African medicinal plants: their potential for the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis. Inflammopharmacology. 2014;22(1):23-36.
Saleem S, Khan R, Kazmi I, Afzal, M. Medicinal plants in the treatment of arthritis. In: Ozturk M, Hakeem K, editors. Plant and Human Health. Vol 3. Springer, Cham; 2019. p. 101-37.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY). However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.