The Reproductive Toxicity of the Ethanolic Extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera Pods on Male and Female Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus)
AbstractBackground and Aim: Tetrapleura tetraptera is used to treat various maladies in southwestern Nigeria, particularly among the Yoruba tribe. This research was designed to examine the reproductive toxicity of the ethanolic extract of T. tetraptera in male and female mice respectively.Materials and Methods: To conduct a spermatogenic study, 20 male mice weighing averagely 19 – 25g were divided into four groups of 5 mice. Groups 1 – 3 were administered T. tetraptera extract of 200, 100, and 50m/kg-1 bwt. orally respectively. The control group was administered distilled water. All the groups were treated for 40 days after which they were sacrificed via jugular puncture. The testes were excised and sperms collected from epididymis for the preparation of slides. Various histologic studies have been carried out on the testes. For teratogenic studies, 20 female mice weighing averagely between 15– 20g were divided into four groups based on body weight, and then a male mouse was placed in each cage to ensure mating. Animals in group 1 – 3 received 200, 100, and 50m/kg-1 bwt of the extract orally, while the control group received distilled water. The animals were treated for 40 days after which their uteri were excised to observe embryos or foetuses.Results: In the spermatogenic studies, some abberrant sperm cells such as sperms without hook, armophous head, two tails, pin head and clusterd tails were observed. Histology revealed slight modification of histoachitechure of the testes like necrotic shreded cells with degenerating basal membrane, non-differentiated germinal cells, artrophy of sertoli cells and vacuolated sertoli cells.No embryo or foetus was found in the female reproductive organs after excission in all the mice treated with extract, but each mouse in the control group conceived and delivered an average of 6 mice.Conclusion: T.tetraptera may contain some cytotoxic agents inhibiting implantation and distorting sperm morphology. The extract may be unsafe for consumption at the doses investigated.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre Kenya. 2009.
Adesina SK, Iwalewa EO, Johnny II. Tetrapleura tetraptera Taub- Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry, Medicinal and Nutritional Values-A Review British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015;12(3):1-22.
Tsala DE, Habtemariam S, Simplice FH, Ndzana MTB, Jital AA, Dimo T. Topically Applied Tetrapleura tetraptera Stem-Bark Extract Promotes Healing of Excision and Incision Wounds in Rats. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology. 2014;3(2):63-7.
Ishola IO, Afolayan GO, Olugbade IO, Olasunmbo Owolabi-Afolayan O. Protective effect of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.) fruit extract against haloperidol-induced catalepsy and scopolamine-induced memory impairment: Involvement of antioxidant system. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research. 2015;30.
Salahdeen HM, Omoaghe AO, Isehunwa GO, Murtala BA, Alada ARA. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of ethanolic extracts of kolanut (Cola nitida) (vent) and its toxicity studies in rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2015;9(3):56-70.
Adeleye SA, Oguoma OI, Braide W, Osogbase EE. Phytochemistry and Antimicrobial Properties of 2:1 and 1:2 Ethanol-methanol Extracts of Tetrapleura Tetraptera. American Journal of Current Microbiology. 2016;4(1).
Onuka AE, Okechukwu NC, Maxine KM, Bond AU. Evaluation of the Effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera Extract and Clomiphene Citrate to Determine Influence of Reproductive Hormones and Estrous Cycle on Leukocyte Counts: Novel Evidence for a Potential Developmental Link Between Luteinizing Hormone and MID Cells. Hematology & Transfusion International Journal. 2017;5(6).
Okokon JE, Udokpoh AE, Antia BS. Antimalaria activity of ethanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;111:537-40.
Odeigah PGC. Sperm-head abnormalities and dominant lethal effects of formaldehyde in albino rats. Mutation Respodents. 1997;389:141-8.
Bakare AA, Mosuro AA, Osibanjo O. An in vivo evaluation of induction of abnormal sperm morphology in mice by landfill leachates. Mutation Res. 2005;582:28–34.
Monesi V. Autoradiographic study of DNA synthesis and the cell cycle in spermatogonia and spermatocytes of mouse testis using tritiated thymidine, Journal of Cell Biology. 1962;14:1–18.
Otubanjo OA, Mosuro AA. An in vivo evaluation of induction of abnormal sperm morphology by some antihelmintic drugs in mice. Mutation Research. 2001;497:131-8.
Eloho Akin-Idowu P, Olubunmi Ibitoye D, Temitope O. Chemical Composition of the Dry Fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera and its Potential Impact on Human Health. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants 2011;17:52-61.
Ochuko L, Olayinka F, Odjobo B, Tosin A, Olaseinde Adesewa O, Tugbogbo A, et al. Ethanol extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit peels: Chemical characterization, and antioxidant potentials against free radicals and lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissues. Journal of Taibah University for Science. 2017;11:861-7.
Essien EU, Izunwanne BC, Aremu CY, Eka OU. Investigation into the toxic constituents of the dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2009;44:55-8.
National Research Council U.S. (NRC) Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); Hydrogen Cyanide: Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. 2002. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207601/.
Jonassen JA, Kohjimoto Y, Scheid CR, Schmidt M. Oxalate toxicity in renal cells. Urol Res. 2005;3(5):329-39.
Taylor RJ. Food Additives. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1980.
Wyrobek AJ, Bruce WR. Chemical induction of sperm-head abnormalities in mice, Production of National Academic of Science. USA. 1975;72:4425-9.
Aina SA, Banjo AD, Lawal OA, Okoh HI, Aina OO, Dedeke GA. The Toxicity of Extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Aridan), Delonix regia (Flame of the Forest) and Raphia vinifera (Raffia Palm) on the Larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Academic Journal of Entomology. 2009;2(2):67-70.
Benie T, Duval T, Thieulant ML. Effects of some traditional plant extracts on rat oestrous cycle compared with clomid. Phytotherapia Resources. 2003.;17:748-55.
Bianco F, Basini G, Grasselli F. The plant alkaloid Sanguinarine affects swine granulosa cell activity. Reproductive Toxicolology. 2006;21:335-40.
El-izzi A, Bennie T, Thieulant M, Dural L. Inhibitory effect of saponins from T. tetraptera on the leutei-nizing hormone release by pituitary cells. Planta Medica. 1990.;6:357-9.
Ekwenye UN, Okorie CF. Antibacterial activity of Tetrapleura Tetraptera Taub. Pod extracts. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2010.1:71–8.
Wang L, waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Blunder M, Liu X, Malainer C, et al. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARᵞ). Biochemistry Pharmacology. 2014;4:2-9.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY). However, the license permits any user to read, copy, redistribute and and make derivative the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.